|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 290-296
Revisiting classification of eating disorders-toward diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11
Shrigopal Goyal1, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara2, SK Khandelwal1
1 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences,New Delhi, India
2 National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences,New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||14-Jan-2013|
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.
Keywords: Anorexia nervosa, bulimia, eating disorders
|How to cite this article:|
Goyal S, Balhara YS, Khandelwal S K. Revisiting classification of eating disorders-toward diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11. Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34:290-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Goyal S, Balhara YS, Khandelwal S K. Revisiting classification of eating disorders-toward diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11. Indian J Psychol Med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 Jan 24];34:290-6. Available from: http://www.ijpm.info/text.asp?2012/34/3/290/106041
| Introduction|| |
Eating disorders have been defined as "disorders of eating behaviors, associated thoughts, attitudes and emotions, and their resulting physiological impairments". Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a syndrome characterized by three essential criteria. The first is a self-induced starvation to a significant degree-a behavior. The second is a relentless drive for thinness and/or a morbid fear of fatness-a psychopathology. The third criterion is the presence of medical signs and symptoms resulting from starvation-a physiological symptomatology.  National Comorbidity Survey Replication estimates the life time prevalence of AN, bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating at 0.9%, 1.5% and 3.5%, respectively, in women and 0.3%, 0.5%, and 2.0% in men.
Studies from western countries have reported that 1% college-aged women have anorexia and 4 % college-age women have bulimia in the U.S. Similarly, 2.6% of female Norwegian students and 1.3% of Italian students have been found to have anorexia. However, studies from Asian countries have reported lower prevalence as compared to western countries. The prevalence rates of AN in Japan has been reported to be 0.025-0.030% and 0.01% in China.  In fact, eating disorders have for long being conceptualized as culture-bound syndromes seen in western settings. Understanding accurate epidemiology of eating disorder is not possible due to changing definition of what constitutes an eating disorder, presentation of eating disorders by their physical consequences in form as medical disorders and lack of clear diagnostic criteria and reliable assessment methods, especially for the nonstereotypical cases in males, minorities, and matrons. Hence there is a need to deal with all these issues appropriately in the upcoming modifications of the nosological systems.
| Materials and Methods|| |
We conducted a literature review to investigate the lacunae in current classification of eating disorder and possible modification suggested by various authors. First, we identified articles on eating disorder, AN, BN, eating disorder NOS and binge-eating disorder (BED) by searching pubmed and MEDLINE. We also searched the articles cited in the reference sections of the papers that were retrieved from our initial search. Search term included eating disorder, AN, BN, eating disorder NOS, BED, new eating disorder, recent advances and DSM-V, ICD-11 in various combinations.
| Results|| |
Evolution of eating disorder classification
In third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and the revised third edition of the DSM (DSM-III-R), eating disorders were classified under disorders of childhood or adolescence, perhaps in part, contributing to previous under diagnosis of later-onset cases. DSM of the American Psychiatric Association has formally recognized two specific categories for the diagnosis of eating disorders- AN and BN (termed Bulimia in DSM-III and BN in DSM-IIIR and DSM-IV). In DSM-IV, all other clinically significant eating disorder problems are captured by the residual category of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). In DSM-IV, BED was included under disorder for further research. Subsequently in DSM-IVTR eating disorder moved to independent section.
In ICD-9, eating disorders were classified under broad rubric of neurotic disorders, personality disorders, and other nonpsychotic mental disorders. Only two categories were specified viz. BN and pica. In ICD-10, eating disorders have been classified under behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors [Table 1].
Criticisms of current classification
Categorical versus dimensional approach
Current DSM classification is built on categorical model. Such a model has an inherent assumption about mental disorders being valid and discrete entities. These discrete categories are well demarcated by firm boundaries between one another and normality and separated by ''zones of rarity''.  However, such an approach precludes examination of full spectrum of disorder. It has been postulated that investigation of etiology of eating disorders is hindered by rigid adoption of DSM definitions. 
Criticisms of current criteria of anorexia nervosa
DSM IV TR specifies that refusal to maintain normal body weight as one of the criteria for AN. However, there is no empirical validation for use of 85% of expected body weight as the cut-off. This criteria has been criticized as being arbitrary, nonpredictive of treatment outcome, and insensitive to issues of age, gender, frame size, and ethnicity.  Also no minimum time required for the ''maintained'' low weight of AN has been presently specified.  In a retrospective study (n=397) of consecutive admissions to an eating disorders unit it was found that 30% of cases were diagnosed as EDNOS. Also, 28% cases of AN had body weight greater than 85% ideal body weight. 
DSM IV TR also specifies intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat even though underweight is one of the criteria for AN. This criterion has also been criticized for being culture bound. Lack of weight concern has been a finding of the studies in non-western settings conducted among patients resembling anorectics. , Additionally, this criteria has little or no diagnostic specificity. Also it tends to poorly predict the outcome.  Moreover, at least some patients in North America and Europe have also reported change in eating behavior other than weight concern. These include fasting for spiritual end and dietary change motivated by eccentric nutritional idea. 
The third criteria of disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced and undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation has been criticized for being influenced by sociocultural reasons. A case series of five cases from India revealed that there was no body image distortion associated with AN.  The possible explaination for this observation is lack of emphasison thinness as mark of feminine beauty in Indian culture.  In fact, girls with higher westernization score have been found to have greater dissatisfaction with body shape in studies conducted in Asian settings.  Also this criterion has been criticized for lacking conceptual specificity. 
Presence of amenorrhoea as defined by absence of at least three menstrual cycles is not applicable to males, prepubertal, postmenopausal women and women using hormone replacements.  It has been reported that many females fail to meet the amenorrhea criterion despite exhibiting all other criteria of AN. This places them in the EDNOS category. In the study by Andersen et al. (2001) 30% cases diagnosed as EDNOS 47% could be diagnosed as AN without amenorrhea.  Diagnosis of EDNOS for an underweight woman with AN who continues to menstruate may fail to indicate the severity of the individual's illness. Amenorrhoea in itself is not a relaible indicator of weight status. Also, it does not provide information with regard to clinical features, psychiatric co-morbidity, or outcome. 
Criticisms of current specifier of anorexia nervosa
Utility of the two AN subtypes (restricting type and binge-purge type) is unclear as subtypes were originally differentiated on the basis of co-morbid psychopathology and distress [Table 2]. The recent studies have failed to find significant differences in co-morbid psychopathology, recovery, relapse, or mortality rates based on the specifier types. Crossover is common between diagnostic subtypes. Upto 62% of patients with restricting-type AN are expected to develop binge-eating/purging-type AN eventually. AN (binge-eating/purging type) does not appear to be qualitatively different than BN (purging and nonpurging).  AN binge-purge subtype has been postulated to represent a more severe or chronologically advanced form of AN, rather than a distinct diagnostic subtype. 
Criticisms of current criteria of bulimia nervosa
''Short period of time'' as mentioned in one of the criteria for BN is not empirically based [Table 3]. Also, there is no evidence suggesting that distinction between longer or shorter binge episodes has clinical utility.  Similarly ''large amount'' has been difficult to operationalize and also puts in to question the reliability of subjective binge episode recall.  Additionally, the current research does not support a distinction between those engaging in behaviors once a week versus twice a week.  Moreover, data is not available to support validity of BN subtypes and also in taxometric and latent class analysis studies two subtypes have clustered together. 
Criticisms of current criteria of eating disorder not otherwise specified
EDNOS category is for disorders of eating that do not meet the criteria for any specific eating disorder. Instead of being a ''residual'' diagnostic category it has been well documented that EDNOS is most common eating disorder diagnosis in outpatient clinical settings. In a study out of 170 consecutive referrals only 4.7% met criteria for AN, 35.3% for BN and rest 60% for EDNOS.  EDNOS patients were similar on distinctive attitudes, behaviors, and severity of co-morbid psychiatric disorders with AN/BN. 
Diagnosis of EDNOS fails to define the course of a disorder and fails to capture possible temporal changes in symptom profile associated with stage of disorder. EDNOS diagnosis fails to inform research, since limited attention and empirical investigation directed toward the study of these ''residual'' disorders. This is a common diagnosis for adolescents in early stages of AN or BN that fails to indicate prognosis.  Many cases diagnosed as EDNOS represent ''atypical'' cases of AN/BN. In a retrospective study of 397 consecutive admissions to an eating disorders unit it was found that of 30% of cases diagnosed as EDNOS 47% were AN without amenorrhea, 28% AN with greater than 85% ideal body weight (but more than a 20% reduction of initial weight) and 3% BN not meeting frequency or duration criteria.  Additionally, around 40% of EDNOS cases could be reclassified as AN or BN by loosening the diagnostic criteria for these disorders. 
Criticisms of current categorization of eating disorder
Problem of diagnostic crossover is common among different diagnosis of eating disorder and different subtypes. It has been estimated that 20%-50% of individuals with AN will develop BN over time.  Similarly, it has been found that 10-27% of those with initial diagnosis of BN crossed over to AN.  Crossover is also common between diagnostic subtypes of AN so that 62% of patients with restricting-type AN would change to binge-eating/purging-type AN. 
In view of the limitations of the existing classification of eating disorders recommendations for change have been proposed. These recommendations along with the arguments, as reported in literature, have been presented here. Most of these recommendations could be grouped under three headings:
- Inclusion of new disorder in existing classification
- Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED) with specifier of dimension
- Addition of severity to the existing classification
These recommendations have been explored in view of the recommended criteria for psychiatric disorders proposed by Robins and Guze criteria [Table 4]. ,
|Table 4: Strength of evidence for the new proposed categories of eating disorders (based on Robins and Guze criteria)|
Click here to view
Inclusion of non-fat-phobic anorexia nervosa
Nonfat phobic-anorexia nervosa (NFP-AN) refers to volitional self-starvation in the absence of fat phobia. Numerous case studies and case series from a variety of cultural contexts offer alternate rationales for food refusal. It has also been asserted that the presentation of AN is socially constructed in clinical encounters. Consequently manifestation of behavioral symptoms have deeply personal meanings.  NFP-AN patients tend to score lower on attitudinal measures of eating pathology and fewer NFP-AN patients endorse binging and purging as compared to current DSM-IVTR AN. Additionally, family studies examining the prevalence of NFP-AN in the first- or second-degree relatives of individuals with NFPAN have failed to find increased prevalence of fat phobic AN.  However, few longitudinal studies have examined course of fat-phobic versus NFP-AN, and available evidence is inconclusive.  Consequently NFP-AN fails to reach standard for diagnostic validity based on available evidence.
Binge-eating disorder as main category
BED tends to differ from other eating disorders in terms of the demographic profile (older age of onset, lower female to male ratio, more ethnic minorities), possible risk factors (less influence of previous history of dieting in retrospective studies, and association with obesity).  Obese women with BED have been found to consume more calories during a binge-eating episode than weight and sex-matched non-BED obese. Also they differ in terms of the food intake and selection during a binge.  BED can be differentiated from noneating disordered and obese person in degree of weight and shape concerns psychopathology, functional impairment and healthcare utilization.  Latent class analyses and taxometric analyses has shown both BN and BED to be distinct classes independent from other eating disorders and from normality.  Longitudinal study on the course of eating disorders has found that at 1 year about 7% of those diagnosed with BED recovered.  Study assessing stability of BED retrospectively in a community sample has shown that mean lifetime duration of BED was 14.4 years, significantly longer than for either BN or AN.  BED aggregates in families, independent of obesity.  Population-based twin study indicated significant additive genetic influences on binge eating in absence of compensatory behaviors.  Hence BED reaches standard for diagnostic validity based on available evidence.
Inclusion of purging disorder
Purging has been defined as the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior by an individual of normal body weight after eating small amounts of food. A recent review has found around 48 journal articles that include topic of purging disorder. Recurrent purging to influence weight or shape has been included in most (26/30; 87%) articles in contrast to the use of compensatory behaviors. Among the 26 studies that included recurrent purging as a central feature, different methods of purging (i.e., self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse) have been included in at least 20 (77%). In five studies, purging was not explicitly defined, and one study reported on the presence of recurrent self-induced vomiting among women without binge eating.  Several studies examining purging disorder have utilized eating disorders examination (EDE) or EDE-Questionnaire and module H of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders can be modified to identify individuals with purging disorder.  Fink et al. (2009) have reported excellent inter-rater reliability (0.91) for purging disorder.  Three studies have provided consistent support for a purging disorder class that is distinct from classes that resemble BN and BED. However, one study has suggested greater overlap among syndromes characterized by purging, including purging disorder, AN-binge purge subtype and BN-purging subtype.  Hence purging disorder also fails to me the standard for an independent diagnostic category.
Inclusion of night-eating disorder
Night-eating disorder (NES) has been described on the basis of three criteria: Consumption of large amounts of food during evening and night-least a quarter of his total calories for day during period following evening meal; sleeplessness of more than half of the time; and morning anorexia.  A significant amount of literature has focused specifically on NES or described studies of meal patterning on eating during the night. In spite of consistent definitions there are marked inconsistencies in the operationalization of each of the three core symptoms. While majority of studies required at least 50% of daily intake to be consumed late evening. Although nine studies set a less restrictive threshold (25% or more) calories consumed after the evening meal. Time frame varies for calories consumed ''late'' in the day (''after the evening meal'' versus a specific time, typically after 7 pm). Most of studies lack of frequency or duration criteria. Majority of the studies have used definitions-included morning anorexia as a core symptom. Although 10 articles reported that diagnosis of NES did not require lack of appetite or breakfast skipping.  Studies published before 2000 employed three-part criterion of evening hyperphagia, morning anorexia, and insomnia but in current literature insomnia was no longer are required for a diagnosis. There has been a good interclinician reliability for NES criteria like morning anorexia and evening hyperphagia. NES also fails to reach the diagnostic category threshold based on the available evidence.
Proposed diagnostic criteria for the broad categories for the diagnosis of eating disorders 
It has been proposed to make use of broad categories for the diagnosis of eating disorders in upcoming modifications of DSM and ICD. This broad category should be defined by the fundamental conceptual definition of an eating disorder, i.e., a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs physical or psychosocial functioning. Additionally, the disturbance should not be secondary to any recognized general medical disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. 
Further, dimensional measures with the broad category could help ascertain the eating disorders along various domains. The proposed dimensional measures include: Body mass index, frequency and size of episodes of out of control eating, frequency and nature of inappropriate compensatory behaviors (e.g., self-induced vomiting, laxative misuse), concern about body shape and weight, degree of distress and impairment related to eating-disorder symptoms.
Category of AN has been proposed to be revised as "Anorexia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders (AN-BSD)". The criteria for the proposed category would include: Severe restriction of food intake relative to caloric requirements leading to the maintenance of an inappropriately low body weight for the individual taking into account their age and height; Clinically significant distress or functional impairment related to the eating disturbance; Not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder or a general medical condition. It would include different subgroups viz., typical AN, with or without amenorrhea; AN, without evidence of distortions related to body shape and weight; AN-BSD with significant weight loss at or above a minimally acceptable body weight; AN-BSD-NOS.
Similarly, the proposed criteria for "Bulimia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders (BN-BSD)" include recurrent out-of-control eating and the recurrent use of inappropriate purging behaviors after eating to control weight or shape and/or the absorption of food; Clinically significant distress or functional impairment related to these behaviors; Not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder or a general medical condition; does not meet criteria for AN and Behaviorally Similar Disorders (AN-BSD). The different subgroups for this category would include: Typical BN; BN, low frequency; purging disorder; BN-BSD-NOS.
A third proposed category would be titled as "Binge Eating Disorder and Behaviorally Similar Disorders (BED-BSD)". The criteria for this category would include: Recurrent episodes of out of control eating, during which the individual feels as if he/she cannot stop or control eating behavior; Clinically significant distress or functional impairment related to these behaviors; Not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder or a general medical condition; Does not meet criteria for Anorexia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders (AN-BSD) or Binge-eating Disorder and Behaviorally Similar Disorders (BED-BSD). the subcategories would include: Typical BED; BED, low frequency; BED-BSD, binge episodes not objectively large; BN-BSD-NOS.
This scheme of classification is expected to have certain advantages. This would help reduce the number of individuals who receive EDNOS diagnosis. At the same time it would help preserve a three-category system resembling that of DSM-IV. Such an approach would help in diagnosing individuals with eating disorders outside of specialist settings. However, if such an approach is implemented then it is likely that individuals classified in one of broad categories of the BCD-ED scheme (e.g., AN-BSD) may exhibit a different symptom constellation than prototypic individuals with DSM-IV defined ED. Additionally, there would always be a possibility of overdiagnosis.
| Conclusions|| |
Various modifications have been recommended for the existing categories for eating disorders in ICD-10 and DSM IV. While the current categorical approach is easy to sue specially in primary care setting, the current classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitation. Categorical approach is based on "all or none" principle with no options in-between. Even the concepts that are inherently dimensional are restricted to mutually exclusive compartments. The construct validity of such categorical approach is questionable. Also the current diagnostic criteria are not culture neutral. Finally, the stability of the current diagnostic categories has also been put to question.
The recommendations include retention of the categorical classification with addition of a dimensional component to each individual criterion. It has been recommended to specify a cut-off weight as well as duration. The criteria for amenorrhea should be removed from AN. The frequency cut-points for BN and BED should be reduced to once per week. There is a need for additional research to determine most valid way to subtype AN patients based on empirical evidence.
| References|| |
|1.||Andersen AE, Yager J. Eating disorders. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, editors. Kaplan and Sadock's comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 9 th ed. New York: 2009. p. 2129-30. |
|2.||Lee HY, Lee EL, Pathy P, Chan YH. Anorexia nervosa in Singapore: An eight-year retrospective study. Singapore Med J 2005;46:275-81. |
|3.||First MB, Pincus HA, Levine JB, Williams JB, Ustun B, Peele R. Clinical utility as a criterion for revising psychiatric diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:946-54. |
|4.||Grilo CM, Devlin MJ, Cachelin FM, Yanovski SZ. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Workshop on the development of research priorities in eating disorders. Psychopharmacol Bull 1997;33:321-33. |
|5.||Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, Bohn K, O'Connor ME, Doll HA, Palmer RL. The severity and status of eating disorder NOS: Implications for DSM-V. Behav Res Ther 2007;45:1705-15. |
|6.||Andersen AE, Bowers WA, Watson T. A slimming program for eating disorders not otherwise specified. Reconceptualizing a confusing, residual diagnostic category. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2001;24:271-80. |
|7.||Wilfley DE, Bishop ME, Wilson G, Agras WS. Classification of Eating Disorders: Toward DSM-V. Int J Eat Disord 2007;40:S123-29. |
|8.||Khandelwal SK, Saxena S. Anorexia nervosa in people of Asian extraction. Br J Psychiatry 1990;157:783-4. |
|9.||Chaudhry IY, Mumford DB. A pilot study of eating disorders in Mirpur (Pakistan), using an 'Urdu version' of the eating attitude test. Int J Eat Disord 1992;11:243-51. |
|10.||Franko DL, Wonderlich SA, Little D, Herzog DB. Diagnosis and classification of eating disorders: What's new. New York: Wiley; 2004. |
|11.||Garfinkel PE. Evidence in support of attitudes to shape and weight as a diagnostic criterion for bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 1992;11:321-5. |
|12.||Khandelwal SK, Sharan P, Saxena S. Eating disorders: An Indian perspective. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1995;41:132-46. |
|13.||Mumford DB, Whitehouse AM, Chaudry IY. Survey of eating disorders in English medium schools in Lahore, Pakistan. Int J Eat Disord 1992;11:173-84. |
|14.||Hsu LK, Sobkiewicz TA. Body image disturbance: Time to abandon the concept for eating disorder? Int J Eat Disord 1991;10:15-30. |
|15.||Attia E, Roberto CA. Should Amenorrhea Be a Diagnostic Criterion for Anorexia Nervosa? Int J Eat Disord 2009;42:581-9. |
|16.||Gleaves D, Lowe MR, Green BA, Cororve MB, Williams TL. Do anorexia and bulimia nervosa occur on a continuum? A taxometric analysis. Behavorial Therapy 2000;31:195-219. |
|17.||Eddy KT, Dorer DJ, Franko DL, Tahilani K, Thompson-Brenner H, Herzog DB. Diagnostic Crossover in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Implications for DSM-V. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165:245-50. |
|18.||Devlin MJ, Goldfein JA, Dobrow I. What is this thing called BED? Current status of binge eating disorder nosology. Int J Eat Disord 2003;34:S2-18. |
|19.||Mond J, Hay P, Rodgers B, Owen C, Crosby R, Mitchell J. Use of extreme weight control behaviors with and without binge eating in a community sample: Implications for the classification of bulimic-type eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 2006;39:294-302. |
|20.||Eckert ED, Halmi KA, Marchi P, Grove W, Crosby R. Ten-year follow-up of anorexia nervosa: Clinical course and outcome. Psychol Med 1995;25:143-56. |
|21.||Tozzi F, Thornton LM, Klump KL, Fichter MM, Halmi KA, Kaplan AS, et al. Symptom fluctuation in eating disorders: Correlates of diagnostic crossover. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:732-40. |
|22.||Eddy KT, Keel PK, Dorer DJ, Delinsky SS, Franko DL, Herzog DB. Longitudinal comparison of anorexia nervosa subtypes. Int J Eat Disord 2002;31:191-201. |
|23.||Robins E, Guze SB. Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: Its application to schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1970;126:983-7. |
|24.||Blashfield RK, Sprock J, Fuller AK. Suggested guidelines for including or excluding categories in the DSM-IV. Compr Psychiatry 1990;31:15-9. |
|25.||Becker AE, Thomas JJ, Pike KM. Should Non-Fat-Phobic Anorexia Nervosa Be Included in DSM-V? Int J Eat Disord 2009;42:620-35. |
|26.||Lee S, Chan YY, Hsu LK. The intermediate-term outcome of Chinese patients with anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:967-72. |
|27.||Wilfley DE, Wilson GT, Agras WS. The clinical significance of binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2003;34:S96-106. |
|28.||Raymond NC, Bartholome LT, Lee SS, Peterson RE, Raatz SK. A comparison of energy intake and food selection during laboratory binge eating episodes in obese women with and without a binge eating disorder diagnosis. Int J Eat Disord 2007;40:67-71. |
|29.||Hudson JI, Lalonde JK, Berry JM, Pindyck LJ, Bulik CM, Crow SJ, et al. Binge-eating disorder as a distinct familial phenotype in obese individuals. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63:313-19. |
|30.||Crow SJ, Stewart Agras W, Halmi K, Mitchell JE, Kraemer HC. Full syndrome versus subthreshold anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder: A multicenter study. Int J Eat Disord 2002;32:309-18. |
|31.||Pope HG Jr, Lalonde JK, Pindyck LJ, Walsh T, Bulik CM, Crow SJ, et al. Binge eating disorder: A stable syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:2181-3. |
|32.||Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Bulik CM, Tambs K, Harris JR. Genetic and environmental influences on binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors: A population-based twin study. Int J Eat Disord 2004;36:307-14. |
|33.||Keel PK, Striegel-Moore RH. The Validity and Clinical Utility of Purging Disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2009;42:706-19. |
|34.||Fink EL, Smith AR, Gordon KH, Holm-Denoma JM, Joiner TE Jr. Psychological correlates of purging disorder as compared with other eating disorders: An exploratory investigation. Int J Eat Disord 2009;42:31-9. |
|35.||Striegel-Moore RH, Franko DL, Garcia J. The Validity and Clinical Utility of Night Eating Syndrome. Int J Eat Disord 2009;42:720-38. |
|36.||Walsh BT, Sysko R. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification. Int J Eat Disord 2009;42:754-64.0 |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]