Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 127-132

Demographic features and neuropsychological correlates in a cohort of 200 patients with vascular cognitive decline due to cerebral small vessel disease


1 Department of Clinical Neurosciences, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Faculty Block, Neurocentre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.178778

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Introduction: Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia and is potentially reversible. Small vessel disease (SVD) closely mimics degenerative dementia in view of its sub-acute onset and progressive course. Therefore, unlike large vessel disease, Hachinski Ischemic scale score may not always reflect vascular cognitive decline resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic confusions. Therefore, there is a need for detailed neuropsychological assessment for various cognitive domains for early identification of vascular cognitive decline as it carries a very good long term prognosis for cognitive morbidity, unlike degenerative dementias. Patients and Methods: This prospective study involves thorough domain based neuropsychological assessment of patients with a radiological diagnosis of SVD involving the following parameters-digit forward and backward, category fluency, color trails, stick test, logical memory test, and bender gestalt test. Magnetic resonance imaging scans done using 3-tesla machines and SVD graded using Fazekas visual scale. Results: The mean Hachinskis score was less sensitive for differentiating vascular dementia from degenerative dementia. However, the domain based neuropsychological scores were highly sensitive showing statistically significant impairment in all 6 domains tested and compared with Fazekas 1-3 grades in imaging. Discussion and Conclusion: This study aimed at establishing an early diagnosis of vascular mild cognitive impairment using domain wise neuropsychological testing and correlating it with radiological scores. Hachinskis score is more sensitive for large vessel disease in view of acute onset and step-like progression as against steady progression in SVD. However, domain-wise testing was highly sensitive in identifying early cognitive impairment in patients with SVD, and early therapeutic interventions are highly rewarding.


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