Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Users Online: 73 
  About Us | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Contact | Advertise | SubmissionLogin 
Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layoutHome Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


 
 Table of Contents    
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 52-58  

Prevalence of depression and associated factors among diabetic patients at Mekelle City, North Ethiopia


1 Department of Nursing, Psychiatry Unit, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
2 PSI , Tigray Region Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
3 SOS International, Mekelle Branch, Mekelle, Ethiopia
4 Department of Psychiatry, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Date of Web Publication24-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Tilahun Belete Mossie
Department of Nursing, Psychiatry Unit, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle
Ethiopia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.198947

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Background: Coexistence of mental health problems on diabetes mellitus can result in poor management of the illness, poor adherence to treatment, and low quality of life. Therefore, it is highly crucial to assess these problems; thus we carried out this study with the aim of determining the prevalence of depression and identifying related factors among diabetic patients at city of Mekelle, North Ethiopia. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was employed among 264 diabetic patients, and participants were selected through systematic random sampling technique. We used local language versions of Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Morisky 8 Item Medication Adherence Scale to assess the levels of depression, anxiety, and medication adherence, respectively. Socio-demographic and clinical factors were also assessed. We accomplish data entry, cleaning, and analysis through Statistical Package for Social Sciences window 20; also the level of significance was determined using adjusted odds ratio (OR). Results: The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients is 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: [12.9%, 21.6%]). In addition, 28% and 18.2% has low medication adherence and comorbid anxiety, respectively. We identify anxiety disorder (AOR = 10.52, 95% CI: [4.56, 24.28]), poor medication adherence (AOR = 4.38, 95%CI: [1.98, 9.64]), and coexistence of other physical illness (AOR = 3.04, 95% CI: [1.11, 8.34]) as risk factors for depression. Conclusions: Depression is a common mental health problem among diabetic patients which is related to poor treatment adherence coexistence of other physical illness and anxiety disorder. This emphasizes to formulate a mechanism for early detection and appropriate intervention.

Keywords: Comorbidity, common mental disorder, depression, mental distress


How to cite this article:
Mossie TB, Berhe GH, Kahsay GH, Tareke M. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among diabetic patients at Mekelle City, North Ethiopia. Indian J Psychol Med 2017;39:52-8

How to cite this URL:
Mossie TB, Berhe GH, Kahsay GH, Tareke M. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among diabetic patients at Mekelle City, North Ethiopia. Indian J Psychol Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Jul 24];39:52-8. Available from: http://www.ijpm.info/text.asp?2017/39/1/52/198947


   Introduction Top


Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating disease that requires life-long treatment and greatly increases the risk of serious, long-term complications. Offering the long-term monitoring and treatment needed is not easy for the health-care systems of Sub-Saharan Africa, which are more focused on managing acute infections.[1]

Sub-Saharan region has been reported with a growing incidence of diabetes; in which the number of Diabetic people which was 7.1 million in 2003, raised to 12.1 million in 2010, and is projected to be 23.9 million with a prevalence of 3.7% in 2030.[1]

In currently emerging studies comorbidity of mental health problems among diabetic patients, most commonly depression and anxiety has been reported. A person with depression might have frequent and persistent low mood, lost interest, a change in appetite, sleep, and motor activity. As well decreased energy, poor concentration/thinking capacity/decision-making, worthlessness, and sometimes death wish or attempt are common presentations.[2]

A higher rate of depression is found among diabetic people than the general population as stated in recent studies.[3],[4],[5] Depression among diabetic people has led to poor treatment adherence poor treatment outcome and consequently worsened quality of life.[6],[7],[8] This coexistence of depression has a higher rate in low- and middle-income countries than high-income countries.[9] In another way, the coexistence of diabetes complicates outcome of depression.[10]

Across the globe distinct, prevalence rates have been reported on depression among diabetic patients; this includes higher figures of 59.8%,[11] 50–60% in Asia,[12],[13] 54.1% in Nepal,[7] 45.2% in Bangladesh [14] to (25.3–35.4%) in India,[15],[16] 17% in Poland,[17] and substantially lower rate of 11.2% in Peru.[18]

There are a number of factors which are associated with cooccurrence of depression among diabetics; these include women, non-married, older age, low socioeconomic, and higher body mass index; besides that smoking habit, increased number of comorbidities, higher level of cholesterol, and poor glycemic control are also related with depression [6], 9, [11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23]

In contrary to most studies, a survey conducted at the United States reported that a baseline diabetic control is not an independent predictor for depressive disorder;[24] one more study from China reported that college level education and having a job were related to depression among diabetics.[23]

Based on PubMed cited articles, in Africa, we found the following studies. In Maroc 41.2%, 27.8%, and 21.9% of major depression, persistent depressive disorder (Less form of depression for 2 or more years), and double depression (both major depression and persistent depressive disorder) were reported among diabetic patients, respectively;[25] whereas similar studies reported the prevalence of depression 34.4% in Guinea and 27.8% in Nigeria; besides this, anxiety and suicidal behavior were reported among 58.7% of Guinean and 6.3% of Nigerian subjects.[26],[27]

The factors associated with depression were similar with those reported from other continents that include low education, low socioeconomic status, older age, higher level of cholesterol, urban residence, being nonmarried, diabetic complications, and longer duration of follow-ups.[25],[26],[27],[28],[29] Another study in Algeria found out that frequent occurrence of type-two diabetes was associated with depression.[29]

In Ethiopia, there were over 1.33 million cases of diabetes in 2015.[30] According to PubMed indexed reports, less prevalence of depression was reported (relative to other African nations) with about 16.3–19.2% range.[28],[29],[30],[31]

In general diabetes mellitus is becoming the emerging challenge to developing nations which can be complicated by the cooccurrence of depression. There are limited studies which showed the prevalence of depression and associated factors among people living with diabetes mellitus in Sub-Saharan region, particularly in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors among diabetes mellitus. Hence, the findings might have vital to stakeholders and policy makers working in diabetic and Psychiatric areas by showing its prevalence and the factors associated with it.


   Methods Top


Study settings and population

A cross-sectional study was conducted at Ayder referral and Mekelle Hospitals from July to September 2015. The study was conducted at the city of Mekelle, the capital of Tigray region with a total population of more than 300,000. There are three public hospitals in the city, and [32] the study was conducted at two of them.

The source population was all diabetic patients who have medical follow-up at Mekelle City, and diabetic patients who had follow-up at Ayder referral/Mekelle hospital during the study period was study population. Those patients with age 18 years and above with follow up for 6 months or more were included in the study. Patients with critically ill were excluded from the study.

Sample size and sampling procedures

Sample size and sampling technique was calculated with single proportion population formula, 34% level of depression,[33] 95% confidence interval (CI), and 5% margin of error. The sample size becomes 344; as the study population is <10,000, correction formula is employed; thus with 10% nonresponse rate the final sample size is 244. Systematic random sampling was employed.

Data collection and quality control

The data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire developed in English and translated to local language by expertise. To assess comorbid depression and anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) tool were used, respectively. In addition, sociodemographic and clinical factors were also assessed. Medication adherence was assessed using Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Score of 21 or more on BDI II tool indicate depression. Mild depression is a score of 11–20 and moderate is scoring 21–30, whereas severe depression is a score of above 41.[34]

Score of 16 or more on BAI tool indicate anxiety; mild, moderate, and severe anxiety is a score of 8–15, 16–25, and above 25, respectively.[35] Poor adherence means a score of 2 or more on MMAS.[36] Interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed with local language.

One day training was given to orient data collectors and supervisor on the questionnaire to be used, the purpose of the study and how to approach respondents and obtain consent. Data collectors' capability to gather consistent and appropriate data were assured before the data collection period through role plays in the training and in the pretest. In addition, pretest on 5% of the sample size was carried out in a private clinic. During the data collection time, they were supervised daily.

Data management and analysis

The data were coded, checked, cleaned, and entered into computers using software Epi Info (this software was developed by Centers for disease Control and Prevention-CDC, Atlanta, USA) and then exported into SPSS window version 20 for analysis (SPSS was developed by International Business Machines Corporation; IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp, USA). Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between binary outcomes and different explanatory variables. Bivariate analysis was first conducted for each potentially explanatory risk factor; then, multivariate logistic regression analysis was done. The strength of association was interpreted using odds ratio (OR) and CI. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant in this study.

Ethical consideration

After obtaining ethical clearance from College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, study settings were informed through official letter; and with their approval, the study was conducted. After discussing the purpose of the study, assuring informed consent, privacy, and confidentiality were kept. Those subjects who were screened to be depressed or develop anxiety were referred to psychiatry clinics.


   Results Top


Among the 264 study subjects, the mean age and standard deviation are 43.2 ± 16.6 with a range of 17–82 years; also 135 (51.1%), 180 (68.2%), 87 (33%), 242 (91.7) are women, married, have no formal education, and Orthodox Christian by religion, respectively [Table 1].
Table 1: Socio demographic characteristics of Diabetic patients, Mekelle, North Ethiopia, Apr 2016 (N=264)

Click here to view


On the clinical data, from the total diabetic patients we interviewed, 146 (53%) take injection, 23.5% have other chronic medical illness, and 22% of them are taking other medication for their chronic medical problems.

The prevalence of depression is 17% (95% CI: 12.9%, 21.6%). Those with mild to moderate depression were 87 (33%), moderate to sever 39 (14.7%), severe depression 6 (2.3%). The most severe depressive symptoms reported are lost interest in sex completely by 42 (15.9%), being too tired in 34 (12.9%), and severe sleep disturbance among 18 (6.8%) [Table 2].
Table 2: Characteristics of depressive symptoms on BDI -.II tool among Diabetic patients, Mekelle city, North Ethiopia, Apr 2016 (N=264)

Click here to view


As well the prevalence of anxiety is 18.2% (95% CI: 14%, 23.9%); mild anxiety among 82 (31%), moderate anxiety in 32 (14%), and severe anxiety among 11 (4.1%). Furthermore, from the study participants according to MMAS, 28% (95% CI: 22.7%, 33.1%) has poor medication adherence. From which 32 (12.1%), 158 (59.8%), and 74 (28%) has high, medium, and low level of adherence, respectively.

Multivariate regression shows that anxiety disorder (AOR = 10.52, 95% CI (4.56, 24.28)), poor medication adherence (AOR = 4.38, 95% CI: [1.98, 9.64]), and coexistence of other physical illness (AOR = 3.04, 95% CI: [1.11, 8.34]) are risk factors for depression [Table 3].
Table 3: Multivariate analysis among different factors and depression among diabetic patients, Mekelle, North Ethiopia, Apr 2016 (N=264)

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Our finding of depression among diabetic patients which is 17% is comparable with prior studies conducted at Black Lion Hospital (16.3%), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (19%), and Poland (17%).[17],[28],[31] Although it is higher than a study Peru (11.2%).[18] In general, our finding is smaller than distinct discoveries from Maroc, Guinea, Nigeria, Asia, Nepal, Bangladesh, and India.[7],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[25],[26],[27] These distinctions can be due to the differences in sample size, sociodemographic condition, and others.

Coexisting anxiety disorder is a risk factor for depression in our study. This is supported by an earlier study which reported that in the primary health-care facility 50% of patients with depression have a comorbid anxiety disorder. This in turn can lead to increased medical service utilization, chronicity, worse treatment outcome, and multiple relapse of the illnesses.[37]

Depression is related with poor medication adherence in the current study. Earlier studies in China [21] had similar finding. Comparable prior meta-analysis declared that depressed patients across a wide array of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease had 76% greater odds of being non-adherent with their medications compared to patients who were not depressed.[38]

Diabetic patients are more prone to other physical illnesses, and this condition is enabling factor for depression. This was also found out in prior studies at Poland, China, India, and Iran.[6],[7],[8],[12],[16],[17],[18],[23]


   Conclusion Top


Almost one in six diabetic patients have depression which associates with coexisting anxiety, poor medication adherence, and other chronic medical illnesses. Therefore, it is better to formulate a mechanism to detect and manage depression early.

Acknowledgments

It is our great delight to thank the study participants and data collectors. In addition, we are very grateful to Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle Hospital and Mekelle University.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Diabetes Leadership Forum. Diabetes: The hidden pandemic and its impact on sub-Saharan Africa. Africa, Johannesburg: Diabetes Leadership Forum; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. DSM 5. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013. p. 155-89.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bruce DG, Davis WA, Hunter ML, Peters KE, Davis TM, Starkstein SE. Lifetime depression history and depression risk in type 2 diabetes: A case-control study. J Diabetes Complications 2016;30:38-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ferreira MC, Piaia C, Cadore AC, Antoniolli MA, Gamborgi GP, Oliveira PP. Clinical variables associated with depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2015;61:336-40.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Teixeira RB, Marins JC, de Sá-Junior AR, de Carvalho CJ, Lade CG, Rizvanov AA, et al. Psychological and cognitive profile of hypertensive and diabetic patients. J Nerv Ment Dis 2015;203:781-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Zhang Y, Ting RZ, Yang W, Jia W, Li W, Ji L, et al. Depression in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: Associations with hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and poor treatment adherence. J Diabetes 2015;7:800-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mishra SR, Sharma A, Bhandari PM, Bhochhibhoya S, Thapa K. Depression and health-related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study in Nepal. PLoS One 2015;10:e0141385.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Shamshirgaran SM, Ataei J, Iranparvar Alamdari M, Safaeian A, Aminisani N. Predictors of health-related quality of life among people with type II diabetes mellitus in Ardabil, Northwest of Iran, 2014. Prim Care Diabetes 2016;10:244-50.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mendenhall E, Norris SA, Shidhaye R, Prabhakaran D. Depression and type 2 diabetes in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014;103:276-85.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kim GM, Woo JM, Jung SY, Shin S, Song HJ, Park J, et al. Positive association between serious psychiatric outcomes and complications of diabetes mellitus in patients with depressive disorders. Int J Psychiatry Med 2015;50:131-46.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Mir K, Mir K, Malik I, Shehzadi A. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in diabetic population. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015;27:99-101.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Azad N, Gondal M, Abbas N, Shahid A. Frequency of depression and anxiety in patients attending a diabetes clinic. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2014;26:323-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Khan MA, Sultan SM, Nazli R, Akhtar T, Khan MA, Sher N, et al. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014;24:770-1.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Islam SM, Ferrari U, Seissler J, Niessen L, Lechner A. Association between depression and diabetes amongst adults in Bangladesh: A hospital based case-control study. J Glob Health 2015;5:020406.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Khullar S, Dhillon H, Kaur G, Sharma R, Mehta K, Aggarwal R, et al. The prevalence and predictors of depression in type 2 diabetic population of Punjab. Community Ment Health J 2016;52:479-83.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Siddiqui S, Jha S, Waghdhare S, Agarwal NB, Singh K. Prevalence of depression in patients with type 2 diabetes attending an outpatient clinic in India. Postgrad Med J 2014;90:552-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Sendela J, Zdunczyk B, Trippenbach-Dulska H, Szypowska A. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in school aged children with type 1 diabetes – A questionnaire study. Psychiatr Pol 2015;49:1005-16.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Crispín-Trebejo B, Robles-Cuadros MC, Bernabé-Ortiz A. Association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients in Lima, Peru. Asia Pac Psychiatry 2015;7:419-26.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Gorska-Ciebiada M, Saryusz-Wolska M, Borkowska A, Ciebiada M, Loba J. Plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen in elderly, diabetic patients with depressive symptoms. Aging Clin Exp Res 2015:1-9. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Mendenhall E. Beyond comorbidity: A critical perspective of syndemic depression and diabetes in cross-cultural contexts. Med Anthropol Q 2015. Special Issue doi: 10.1111/maq.12215. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Bartoli F, Carrà G, Crocamo C, Carretta D, La Tegola D, Tabacchi T, et al. Association between depression and neuropathy in people with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2016;31:829-36.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Hawamdeh S, Almakhzoomy I, Hayajneh Y. Screening and correlates of depression and HbA1 C in United Arab Emirates (UAE) women with diabetes. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2013;49:262-8.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Wang L, Song R, Chen Z, Wang J, Ling F. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and factors associated with it in type 2 diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study in China. BMC Public Health 2015;15:188.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Angstman K, Flinchbaugh RT, Flinchbaugh K, Meunier MR, Angstman GL. Diabetes and depression: Does worsening control of diabetes lead to poorer depression outcomes? J Eval Clin Pract 2016;22:98-100.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Manoudi F, Chagh R, Benhima I, Asri F, Diouri A, Tazi I. Depressive disorders in diabetic patients. Encephale 2012;38:404-10.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Camara A, Baldé NM, Enoru S, Bangoura JS, Sobngwi E, Bonnet F. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among diabetic African patients in Guinea: Association with HbA1c levels. Diabetes Metab 2015;41:62-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Igwe MN, Uwakwe R, Ahanotu CA, Onyeama GM, Bakare MO, Ndukuba AC. Factors associated with depression and suicide among patients with diabetes mellitus and essential hypertension in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Afr Health Sci 2013;13:68-77.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Erkie M, Feleke Y, Desalegne F, Anbessie J, Shibre T. Magnitude, clinical and sociodemographic correlate of depression in diabetic patients, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 2013;51:249-59.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Sebbani M, Dali Sahi M, Amine M, Aouar A. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and factors associated in depression. Encephale 2014;40:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
International Diabetes Federation. International Diabetes Federation Africa. Diabetes in Ethiopia; 2015. Available from: http://www.idf.org/membership/afr/ethiopia. [Last accessed on 2015 Dec 22].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Dejenie Habtewold T, Radie YT, Sharew NT. Prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients in Black Lion General Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Depress Res Treat 2015;2015:184902.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Mekelle City Administration. About Mekelle. Available from: http://www.mekelleadministration.gov.et. [Last accessed on 2015 Dec 20].  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Sisay D, Alemayehu N, Kenfe T, Andrea J, Mubarek A. Depression and Diabetes in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. J Psychiatry 2014;17:2-5.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W. Comparison of beck depression inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients. J Pers Assess 1996;67:588-97.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56:893-7.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Morisky DE, DiMatteo MR. Improving the measurement of self-reported medication nonadherence: Final response. J Clin Epidemiol 2011;64:262-3.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Hirschfeld RM. The comorbidity of major depression and anxiety disorders: Recognition and management in primary care. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2001;3:244-254.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Grenard JL, Munjas BA, Adams JL, Suttorp M, Maglione M, McGlynn EA, et al. Depression and medication adherence in the treatment of chronic diseases in the United States: A meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med 2011;26:1175-82.  Back to cited text no. 38
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Methods
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed564    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded20    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal