Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 164-168

Long loop reflex 2 in patients with cortical dementias: A pilot study


1 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Clinical Neurosciences, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Faculty Block, Neurocentre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.203126

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Introduction: Dementia is a major public health problem and it appears to be a global epidemic. The prevalence is doubling every 5 years and it is expected that 70% of persons above 60 years will live in developing countries by 2020 and 15% of them are likely to suffer from dementia. Disease modifying treatments work only if initiated very early; however, diagnostic tools are not always able to clearly differentiate the different types in very early stage. Therefore, inexpensive and easily available biomarkers are needed to know if collectively they will improve the sensitivity of specific diagnosis. Therefore, in this pilot study, we have tried to analyze if long loop reflex (LLR2) is differentially affected in these two conditions early in the course of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) based on hypothesis taking into account the anatomical substrates involved. Patients and Methods: Mild cases of clinically probable AD and FTD after appropriate inclusion criteria were subjected for LLR testing in the upper limb at median nerve. The presence or absence of LLR was assessed and also the latency, amplitude, and duration assessed. Results and Conclusion: LLR 2 is differentially affected in both these conditions. Absence of LLR2 was consistently seen in FTD which can be explained by early break down of frontal subcortical circuits in this condition as against AD. This is likely to serve as a very cheap and very early biomarker to differentiate the two common types of cortical dementias.


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