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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 392-398

Interrelations of level of urinary cotinine and score for fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence among beedi smokers, and smokeless tobacco users in India


1 Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Nitte Usha Institute of Nursing Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Oral Biology and Genomic Studies, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Chitta Chowdhury
Department of Oral Biology and Genomic Studies, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.211758

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Background: Tobacco related diseases is largely preventable and can stop pre-mature death. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence rate of smoking is 28.6% (40% among males and 18.2% among females).[1] Beedismoking and tobacco chewing are the commonest forms of tobacco habits in India, and strongly associated with oral cancer in India.[2] There are methods to estimation of severity of tobacco dependency, of them FTND is identified. The score for FTND is used for cigarette smoking, but we do not know the FTND score of ST users and Beedi smokers in India. Therefore, keeping the study in plan, we aim a systemic review with the following objective. Objectives: 1. To pursue a review of published researches on interrelations between Beedi smoking and FTND score. 2. To pursue a review of published researches on interrelations between consumption of ST and FTND score. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of published papers were examined from three different electronic databases namely Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ProQuest . The inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria was set based on commonality of the studies which was looked through the objectives. Total of four papers of its category were found, and those met the criteria for inclusion factors. Results: Seventy-one articles were screened initially and forty-three articles were excluded and twenty-eight articles were screened, out of which twenty articles were excluded based on inclusion criteria. The abstracts of remaining eight articles were reviewed and four were removed because of duplication of the data. Finally, four articles were included for review after three stages of screening. Review results revealed that out of four selected reviews, one research study finding was interrelated with FTND score and Beedi and ST users. This study results also revealed that there is not a set of research carried out on FTND score for Beedi smokers and ST users.


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