Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 627-633

A comparative study of factors associated with relapse in alcohol dependence and opioid dependence

1 Department of Psychiatry, Grant Government Medical College, J.J. Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Health Services, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, USA
3 Department of Psychiatry, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Avinash De Sousa
Carmel, 18, St. Francis Road, Off S.V. Road, Santacruz West, Mumbai - 400 054, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_356_17

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Background: Alcohol and opiates are among the most addictive substances posing significant public health problems due to the biopsychosocial impact that they have on individuals. Research shows that majority of abstinent alcohol and/or opioid dependence subjects relapse within 1 year. It has also been estimated that 26–36 million people worldwide abuse opiates, with exceptionally high-relapse rates. The purpose of this study was to compare the sociodemographic factors and correlates relapse in alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. Methodology: This research uses a cross-sectional comparative study design with a sample size of 60 drawn from a population of clinically diagnosed patients of alcohol dependence (n = 30) or opioid dependence (n = 30) and seeking treatment for relapse. In addition to collecting sociodemographic data, other factors such as craving, affect, self-efficacy, and expressed emotions were measured using standardized instruments including brief substance craving scale, Bradburn affect balance scale, drug avoidance and self-efficacy scale and family emotional involvement, and conflict scale. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: Disparity in sociodemographic factors was seen in both the groups with opioid group being more likely to be single, unemployed, belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and having a criminal record (P = 0.025). Among factors associated with relapse, the opioid group scored significantly higher on craving, perceived criticism (P = 0.0001), and lower on self-efficacy (P = 0.016). Most common reason cited for relapse in both the groups was desire for positive mood. Conclusion: This study highlights the role of social determinants in drug dependence and relapse. Relapse was found to be a complex multifactorial phenomenon. Despite differences in presentation, somewhat similar relapse mechanisms were seen in both groups.

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