Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 675-681

Misidentification of Wilson disease as Schizophrenia (1998–2013): Case report and review

Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Forouzan Elyasi
Emam Khomeini General Hospital, Razi Avenue, Sari
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_339_16

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Wilson's disease (WD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to copper metabolism. Schizophrenia-like psychosis and delusional disorder are rare forms of psychiatric manifestations of WD. The lack of recognition of these signs and symptoms as being attributable to WD often leads to delays in diagnosis and management. Knowledge about relationship of the psychiatric manifestations to WD can help with the administration of adequate management aimed at both the psychiatric issues and underlying WD. The objectives of this article are to review case reports whose subject is the incorrect diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like syndrome in patients with WD and to detail one case of this mismanagement of the disease. A 35-year-old unmarried Iranian woman presented to the consulting psychiatrist in the emergency room after a suicide attempt due to commanding auditory hallucination. She had previous eleven admissions in psychiatric hospital with major depressive episode with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorders, and then schizophrenia diagnosis. Nineteen years after her first symptoms, it was discovered that the patient was suffering from WD. We searched Google Scholar, Ovid, PsycINFO, CINHAL, and PubMed databases from 1985 to 2015. Finally, 14 researches were entered into the study. Psychiatric manifestations may precede the diagnosis of WD and other symptoms related to neurological or hepatic impairment. Early detection of WD is important to prevent catastrophic outcome. Young patients presenting with psychiatric presentations along with abnormal movement disorder, seizure, or conversion-like symptoms should be evaluate for WD even if signs and symptoms are typically suggestive of schizophrenia or manic episode. An interdisciplinary approach with good collaboration of psychiatrists and neurologists is crucial for WD because early diagnosis and management without delay is an important for good prognosis.

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