Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
  Home | About Us | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Contact | Advertise | Submission | Login 
Users Online: 545 
Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layoutHome Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


 
 Table of Contents    
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 286-288  

Developmental delay, hyperactivity and mania: A perfect blend of confusion in a preschool child


Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Web Publication17-May-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jitender Aneja
Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur - 342 005, Rajasthan
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_379_18

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Kuppili PP, Aneja J. Developmental delay, hyperactivity and mania: A perfect blend of confusion in a preschool child. Indian J Psychol Med 2019;41:286-8

How to cite this URL:
Kuppili PP, Aneja J. Developmental delay, hyperactivity and mania: A perfect blend of confusion in a preschool child. Indian J Psychol Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 19];41:286-8. Available from: http://www.ijpm.info/text.asp?2019/41/3/286/252705



Sir,

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurring with pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) has been controversial. Researchers have proposed hypotheses about the spectrum concept of ADHD and pediatric BD and that ADHD could be a precursor of BD.[1] Clinically, both the illnesses share symptoms of hyperactivity, distractibility, and irritability. ADHD has been associated with a higher risk of earlier onset of BD.[2] Despite the high comorbidity and risk, a significant number of ADHD with pediatric BD cases remain underdiagnosed.[1]


   Case Details Top


A 5-year-old boy presented with complaints of reduced sleep since 6 months of age, increased activity levels since 1 year of age, and irritability since 3 years of age. Antenatally, the mother had pre-eclampsia. However, child-birth was normal, and he attained developmental milestones as per age for the first 6 months (e.g., social smile by 2 months, head control by 2–3 months, and ability to turn by 6 months). Thereafter, the mother observed a reduction in his sleep time from 12 h/day to ≤6–7 h/day. Delay in acquiring language, recognizing mother, and make-believe play, and deficits in emotional reactivity were noted till the age of 1 year. However, he learnt to fetch things for self, to reach out for objects, some level of hand–eye coordination, and the ability to shift things from one hand to the other.

He started walking at the age of 12–18 months, but within a few months, he was observed to be walking at a faster pace, though he would not hurt self. His activity levels were reportedly more than children of his age. He avoided eye contact, attained babbling only, and continued with less than normal sleep hours. Recognition of parents and bi-syllable words in the speech were attained at the age of 2.5 years. Parental efforts to teach him language were futile and vocabulary did not improve beyond 5–6 words. Since 3 years of age, his activity levels had increased to an extent that it was impossible to make him sit. He was not amenable to any form of training in view of lack of attention and easy distractibility. He was fussy about food but could eat himself. He did not achieve any meaningful play activities, avoided other children of his age, and preferred solitary play with inanimate objects. These complaints were also the reason for drop-out from school within 6 months of enrollment.

For the last 2 years, further worsening of symptoms, in the form of predominant irritable mood, inappropriate laughing without any stimulus, and increase in demand for eatables, was observed. Refusal to entertain his demands would be met with aggression. Activity levels also increased to an extent that it often necessitated physical restraint. His sleep hours remained 3–4 hours at night. Moreover, parental burn-out was also observed.


   Examination and Management Top


Physical examination was unremarkable. Mental status examination revealed irritable affect, marked hyperactivity, poor content of speech, and lack of eye contact. Physical investigations including hemogram, blood biochemistry, thyroid profile, urinary copper levels, anti-streptolysin O titers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were normal. Social quotient measured on Vineland Social Maturity Scale revealed borderline intelligence, and the score on Indian Scale of Assessment of Autism was 45 that ruled out autism. He was diagnosed with ADHD, borderline intellectual functioning, and mania as per the DSM-5. Exclusion approach was used to subtract features common to ADHD and maniad such as hyperactivity, inattention, and intrusiveness. Apart from these common symptoms, psychomotor agitation, over-demanding, decreased need for sleep, and persistent irritability (though the evidence is conflicting)[3],[4] were suggestive of mania.

Previously, he did not tolerate methylphenidate, and trials of atomoxetine and risperidone had not yielded any benefit. Therefore, we put him on sodium valproate (20 mg/kg) and clonidine (200 μg/day). Significant improvement in mood and activity was noted about 3 days after starting the medications, with Young's Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Connor's Abbreviated Rating Scale (CARS) scores improving from 23 and 30 at baseline to 15 and 22, respectively. At the end of 6 weeks of treatment, the patient was euthymic and significant improvement in hyperactivity and inattentiveness was noted, with YMRS score of 7 and CARS score of 13.


   Discussion Top


The index case offers several unique learning points highlighting the diagnostic dilemmas and treatment challenges faced in a very young child with developmental delays and ADHD who presented with BD. These aspects are briefly discussed here.

ADHD and BD in childhood

There are a few reports of mania occurring in children as young as 3 years of age. In a previous case series of mania in six children aged between 4 and 5 years, three had BD comorbid with ADHD.[5] Similarities between these cases and the index case included early onset of sleep disturbances, history of speech delay, poor response to methylphenidate, persistent irritability, and marked hyperactivity. The phenomenology of pediatric BD differs from that of adult-onset BD as the former has predominant irritability, continuous course of illness, and lesser frequency of well-formed delusions of grandiosity, and the course of mania in children with ADHD is largely chronic, with greater functional impairment.[6],[7]

Moreover, the use of methylphenidate in patients with ADHD with BD has been controversial.[8] Further, consistent with the available evidence of efficacy of sodium valproate in the management of acute mania and that of clonidine for both ADHD and mania, we got an excellent response in the index child by utilizing both these agents.[9]

ADHD and developmental delay

ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, shares many neurobiological, neuropsychological, and clinical features with autism, global developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Moreover, in addition to the core symptoms of ADHD, a lot of children present with multiple developmental delays in the form of deficits in language skills, pragmatic language, and motor and social skills.[10] However, most available evidence does not suggest whether the developmental delays/disorders observed in children with ADHD are a precursor or a consequence of ADHD. Hence, the corollary of “chicken or the egg” may be suitably utilized in this scenario.


   Conclusion Top


Psychiatrists and pediatricians must be sensitized about the co-occurrence of ADHD and BD in very young children.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Zepf FD. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and early-onset bipolar disorder: Two facets of one entity? Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2009;11:63-72.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder–bipolar comorbidity in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disord 2006;8:373-81.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Goldstein B, Birmaher B, Carlson GA, DelBello MP, Findling RL, Fristad M, et al. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force report on pediatric bipolar disorder: Knowledge to date and directions for future research. Bipolar Disord 2017;19:524-43.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Serra G, Uchida M, Battaglia C, Casini MP, De Chiara L, Biederman J, et al. Pediatric Mania: The controversy between euphoria and irritability. Curr Neuropharmacol 2017;15:386-93.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tumuluru RV, Weller EB, Fristad MA, Weller RA. Mania in six preschool children. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2003;13:489-94.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Renk K, White R, Lauer BA, McSwiggan M, Puff J, Lowell A. Bipolar disorder in children. Psychiatry J 2014;2014:928685.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Tillman R, Geller B. Controlled study of switching from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder phenotype during 6-year prospective follow-up: Rate, risk, and predictors. Develop Psychopathol 2006;18:1037-53.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Galanter CA, Carlson GA, Jensen PS, Greenhill LL, Davies M, Li W, et al. Response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and manic symptoms in the multimodal treatment study of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder titration trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2003;13:123-36.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Girard R, Joober R. Treatment of ADHD in patients with bipolar disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2017;42: E11-2.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yochman A, Ornoy A, Parush S. Co-occurrence of developmental delays among preschool children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006;48:483-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
     Case Details
   Examination and ...
     Discussion
     Conclusion
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed137    
    Printed9    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded12    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal