Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 569-577

Development of a scale of positive temperament in Indian context

1 Organizational and Social Psychologist, Kinetic Potential Explorers India, Delhi, India
2 Clinical Psychologist, PsyClinic, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tarun Verma
B-3/141, 2nd Floor, Paschim Vihar, Delhi - 110 063
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_498_18

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Background: Available tests of temperament measure the traits of different categories (like reward dependence, emotionality) with a large number of items. These tests do not deal specifically with traits of positive temperament (emotionality), and most scales measure negative emotionality as a counterpart of positive emotionality. The current study reports the development of a new scale of positive temperament, with fewer items and applicable in the Indian context. Methods: Items were developed with help from available scales of positive temperament, which led to the selection of 36 items from six different constructs. The data were collected in two stages for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the scale. Stage one and two consisted of 278 and 338 participants, respectively, in the age group of 18–80 years, from both the genders and different professions. Data was collected online through the Qualtrics survey website. The participants responded on a 5-point Likert scale from 0–4 indicating how often they behave in a particular way as asked by the item. The test was reconducted on a subsample of 98 participants after 4 weeks to measure test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was also established using strengths and difficulties questionnaire and neuroticism scale, and divergent validity was found with age. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors: optimism, perseverance, self-contentment, and adaptability. Confirmatory factor analysis later revealed that the 4-factor model fits best with the data, having comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.96 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.063. The internal consistency estimates of the four factors ranged from 0.72 to 0.91, indicating a stable structure of scales. The final scale is of 28 items, with seven items in each factor. The test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.79–0.96. Two second-order factors were also identified. Conclusions: The positive temperament inventory is a four-factor, 28-item validated inventory with a stable set of items, having specific applicability in measuring positive temperament and fewer items for ease of use in different situations. This is the first scale of its kind in the Indian context and holds a promising future in the area of personality and clinical research.

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