Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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Expressed emotion research in India: A narrative review

1 Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Kollam, Kerala, India
3 Department of Social Work, Linneaus University, Vaxjo, Sweden

Correspondence Address:
Anvar Sadath,
Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Kozhikode - 673 008, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_235_18

Background: Expressed emotion (EE) is detrimental to patients with schizophrenia, mood disorders, eating disorders and many other psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, majority of the EE literature is generated from the west, and the results of those studies may have limited application in Indian setting. Hence, we conducted this review with the main aim of understanding EE research in India and its potential role in the course and outcome of psychiatric disorders and other chronic illnesses. Methods: Using keywords, we performed searches of electronic databases (PubMed, IndMed, PsychInfo, Science-Direct and Google Scholar) and internet sources and a manual search in the bibliography of the retrieved articles to identify potential original research articles on EE in India. Results: As per the selection criteria, 19 reports of 16 studies were included and reviewed. The sample size of the EE studies ranged from 20 to 200, and majority of the studies were conducted in psychosis/schizophrenia, followed by obsessive compulsive disorder and epilepsy. Although high EE was found in most of the studies, the impact of EE on illness outcome is not well explored and only two studies examined the relationship between EE and relapse. Discussion and Conclusion: There is a dearth of studies on EE, especially its relationship with relapse or clinical outcomes in the Indian context. We recommend more studies in these areas which may be helpful for clinical decisions and advancement of context knowledge in EE.

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