Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 210--215

The P value and statistical significance: Misunderstandings, explanations, challenges, and alternatives


Chittaranjan Andrade 
 Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade
Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
India

The calculation of a P value in research and especially the use of a threshold to declare the statistical significance of the P value have both been challenged in recent years. There are at least two important reasons for this challenge: research data contain much more meaning than is summarized in a P value and its statistical significance, and these two concepts are frequently misunderstood and consequently inappropriately interpreted. This article considers why 5% may be set as a reasonable cut-off for statistical significance, explains the correct interpretation of P < 0.05 and other values of P, examines arguments for and against the concept of statistical significance, and suggests other and better ways for analyzing data and for presenting, interpreting, and discussing the results.


How to cite this article:
Andrade C. The P value and statistical significance: Misunderstandings, explanations, challenges, and alternatives.Indian J Psychol Med 2019;41:210-215


How to cite this URL:
Andrade C. The P value and statistical significance: Misunderstandings, explanations, challenges, and alternatives. Indian J Psychol Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Aug 19 ];41:210-215
Available from: http://www.ijpm.info/article.asp?issn=0253-7176;year=2019;volume=41;issue=3;spage=210;epage=215;aulast=Andrade;type=0