Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of disability of mentally retarded persons on their parents
Thiyam Kiran Singh, Vishal Indla, Ramasubba Reddy Indla
July-December 2008, 30(2):98-104
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.48482  
Mental retardation is a permanent condition unlike many other diseases. It is a highly prevalent and highly disabling condition. In this study an attempt has been made to study both positive and negative impact on parents so as to help manage this problem in the best possible way. The study was conducted at the outpatient department of P.G.I. Behavioral and Medical Sciences, Raipur, and two special schools of mentally challenged children and it was done by purposive sampling method. Using specially designed semi-structured sociodemographic and clinical data sheet, information was gathered about mentally challenged children and their parents. Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) and Developmental Screening Test (DST) were used to assess their intelligence. Parents fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria consenting for the study were selected. National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Disability Impact Scale (2003) was then administered on them. The results are reported and discussed.
  17,711 1,072 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research?
Jaykaran Charan, Tamoghna Biswas
April-June 2013, 35(2):121-126
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.116232  PMID:24049221
Calculation of exact sample size is an important part of research design. It is very important to understand that different study design need different method of sample size calculation and one formula cannot be used in all designs. In this short review we tried to educate researcher regarding various method of sample size calculation available for different study designs. In this review sample size calculation for most frequently used study designs are mentioned. For genetic and microbiological studies readers are requested to read other sources.
  12,688 857 -
Special employment exchange for persons with psychiatric disability
C Ramasubramanian
July-December 2008, 30(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.48477  
  11,012 457 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults
K Chandrasekhar, Jyoti Kapoor, Sridhar Anishetty
July-September 2012, 34(3):255-262
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.106022  PMID:23439798
Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45), a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006) in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that a high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract safely and effectively improves an individual's resistance towards stress and thereby improves self-assessed quality of life.
  10,458 219 1
CASE REPORTS
A giant trichobezoar causing rapunzel syndrome in a 12-year-old female
Nadeem Ul Nazeer Kawoosa, Babar Rashid Zargar
January-June 2011, 33(1):77-79
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.85401  PMID:22021959
Bezoar is a tightly packed collection of undigested material that is unable to exit the stomach. Most bezoars are of indigestible organic matter such as hair-trichobezoars; or vegetable and fruit-phytobezoars; or a combination of both. Trichobezoars commonly occur in patients with psychiatric disturbances who chew and swallow their own hair. In very rare cases, the Rapunzel syndrome hair extends through the pylorus into the small bowel causing symptom and sign of partial or complete gastric outlet obstruction. A case report of trichobezoar in the stomach causing Rapunzel syndrome in a 12-year-old female is reported.
  8,197 52 2
ARTICLES
A study of stress and psychiatric morbidity in the central industrial security force
G Prasad Rao, Khaja Moinuddin, P Geeta Sai, Eva Sarma, Angers Sarma, P Srinivasa Rao
January-June 2008, 30(1):39-47
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.43133  
The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) provides security cover to several of the Nation's vital industrial sectors and the CISF personnel are trained so as to meet expected and unexpected emergencies for varied periods of time. The present study is undertaken at the National industrial security Academy, NISA, Hyderabad with the objectives of assessing the psychiatric morbidity and the factors contributing to stress among the CISF personnel. A Random stratified sample of 500 subjects stratified to include personnel from all ranks such as SI's, Executive officials and constables are screened using the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire. A detailed screening Questionnaire adapted from Channabasavanna S.M etal (1996) to assess the stress and coping was used. Those who are screened positive are further evaluated using the Mini International Neuro-psychiatric Interview, M.I.N.I to confirm the psychiatric diagnosis and using detailed personal interviews the factors contributing to stress in the CISF personnel are identified. The results of the study have shown that personnel posted in stressful areas and of the Rank of constables had perceived stress and more morbidity compared to those posted in nonstressful areas.
  7,092 405 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Expressed Emotion in Schizophrenia: An Overview
Anekal C Amaresha, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
January-March 2012, 34(1):12-20
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.96149  
The expressed emotion (EE) is considered to be an adverse family environment, which includes the quality of interaction patterns and nature of family relationships among the family caregivers and patients of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Influence of EE has been found to be one of the robust predictors of relapse in schizophrenia. This review article aims to provide a brief description of the origins and evolution of the EE as a construct from the available literature. The EE is modulated by multiple factors-some of which include certain personality profile, attribution factors by caregivers toward patient symptoms, and patient's vulnerability to stress. The psychosocial assessment and interventions specifically focused on family psychoeducation can potentially reduce high EE and relapse of symptoms as well. However, the theory surrounded with EE undermines the caregiver's positive attitudes toward the patients. Hence, it is important that the future studies should focus on both protective and vulnerable factors within the construct of EE in schizophrenia to facilitate comprehensive care.
  7,062 417 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Emotion recognition deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia
Balaji Bharadwaj, Rashmi Arasappa, Rishikesh V Behere, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, PN Jayakumar, BN Gangadhar
July-December 2008, 30(2):90-97
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.48481  
Background: Emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia form an important component of deficits seen in the disorder. Emotion recognition abilities correlate well with symptom dimensions and sociooccupational outcome of the disorder. The influence of pharmacological treatment on brain functions makes it important to design studies examining emotion recognition in drug-naive patients. However, emotion recognition deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients have not been previously examined. Methods: In this study, TRENDS - A Tool for Recognition of Emotions of Neuropsychiatric Disorders - a tool validated in Indian population, was used to assess emotion recognition abilities of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients ( n = 20) and group-matched healthy controls ( n = 20). Results: The study showed significant deficits in emotion recognition in patients, especially with regard to fear ( P = 0.001), followed by disgust ( P = 0.006), and anger ( P = 0.017). The under-recognition of these emotions was positively correlated with high negative symptom scores ( r = 0.470; P = 0.018) and negatively correlated with high positive symptom scores ( r = -0.447; P = 0.048). Conclusions: Presence of significant emotion recognition abnormalities in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia suggests that these abnormalities might be intrinsically related to the pathogenesis of this disorder.
  6,975 194 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Contemporary perspectives on spirituality and mental health
Pulkit Sharma, Ruby Charak, Vibha Sharma
January-June 2009, 31(1):16-23
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53310  PMID:21938086
The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly.
  6,168 623 2
CASE REPORTS
Gratification disorder mimicking childhood epilepsy in an 18-month-old Nigerian girl: A case report and review of the literature
Aliyu Ibrahim, Belonwu Raymond
October-December 2013, 35(4):417-419
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.122247  PMID:24379510
Gratification disorder is common in younger children, but is often unrecognized because unlike in adolescents, it does not involve manual genital manipulation and the clinical features are quite variable; therefore a thorough history, physical examination, and video recording of the events will go a long way in making the correct diagnosis, otherwise it could easily be misdiagnosed as epilepsy, nonepileptic paroxysmal movement disorder, or even gastrointestinal disorder.
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NEW HORIZON
Need for a realistic mental health programme in India
Ankur Barua
January-June 2009, 31(1):48-49
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53316  PMID:21938092
India, with a population of a billion, has very limited numbers of mental health facilities and professionals in providing mental health care to all the people. The disability associated with mental or brain disorders stops people from working and engaging in other creative activities. Gradual implementation of district mental health programme in a phased manner with support of adequate managerial and financial inputs is the need of the day. Trained mental health care personnel, treatment, care, and rehabilitation facilities should be made available and accessible to the masses. The voluntary organizations should be encouraged to participate in mental health care programme.
  5,462 616 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of fluoxetine on some cognitive functions of patients of depression
Jaykaran , Pankaj Bhardwaj, ND Kantharia, Preeti Yadav, Arvind Panwar
January-June 2009, 31(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53311  PMID:21938087
Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of long-term administration of a commonly prescribed antidepressant, fluoxetine from different group on memory and psychomotor functions in patients of various psychiatric disorders using a battery of simple tests that can be conveniently applied to the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Memory was evaluated using the PGI memory scale and psychomotor functions were evaluated using six letter cancellation test. Statistical analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study reveal that there was significant improvement in some cognitive function. Cognitive functions are improved at first follow-up and they improved continuously up to last follow-up that is at one month. It is observed that there was improvement in the primary disease. So, final score of the cognitive parameters is because of the resultant activity of direct drug action and improvement in the underlying disease.
  5,653 407 -
ORATION
Burden of being a psychiatrist - professional stress
C Shamasundar
July-December 2008, 30(2):70-74
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.48476  
Psychiatrists suffer professional stress. This is being studied for about four decades in the West, but not in India. The reported etiological factors are related to the nature of the profession and clinical situations, characteristics of the psychiatrist, and of the patient. But, there are many unanswered questions. This article briefly overviews the topic, poses few questions, and suggests certain remedial paradigms. The theme of this article applies equally well to mental health profession in general.
  5,618 350 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Work-life balance among married women employees
N Krishna Reddy, MN Vranda, Atiq Ahmed, BP Nirmala, B Siddaramu
July-December 2010, 32(2):112-118
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.78508  PMID:21716777
Family-work conflict (FWC) and work-family conflict (WFC) are more likely to exert negative influences in the family domain, resulting in lower life satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Studies have identified several variables that influence the level of WFC and FWC. Variables such as the size of family, the age of children, the work hours and the level of social support impact the experience of WFC and FWC. However, these variables have been conceptualized as antecedents of WFC and FWC; it is also important to consider the consequences these variables have on psychological distress and wellbeing of the working women. Aim : to study various factors which could lead to WFC and FWC among married women employees. Materials and Methods : The sample consisted of a total of 90 married working women of age between 20 and 50 years. WFC and FWC Scale was administered to measure WFC and FWC of working women. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Carl Pearson's Correlation was used to find the relationship between the different variables. Findings and Conclusion : The findings of the study emphasized the need to formulate guidelines for the management of WFCs at organizational level as it is related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.
  5,549 410 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurodevelopmental basis of obsessive-Compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia
Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Naren P Rao, Rishikesh V Behere
January-June 2009, 31(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53308  PMID:21938084
The prevalence of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia (OCSS) appears to be higher than that expected on the basis of comorbidity rates. Review of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals involvement of similar regions namely the frontal lobe, the basal ganglia, the thalamus, and the cerebellum, in both the disorders. Neurodevelopmental etiopathogenesis has been proposed to explain schizophrenia as well as OCD. Significant overlap in neurotransmitter dysfunction (serotonin, glutamate, and dopamine) has been documented between schizophrenia and OCD. The New-onset obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms have been reported with the use of atypical antipsychotics in the schizophrenia patients In this background, OCSS is an emerging area of recent interests. This article attempts to review the literature on the neurobiology of OCSS. Neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neuromotor abnormalities in OCSS discussed in the context of neurodevelopmental etiopathogenesis suggest glutamate abnormalities in OCSS. Atypical antipsychotic induced OCSS points towards the possible roles of glutamate and serotonin. Dopamine may be responsible for the beneficial role of antipsychotics in the treatment of OCD. In summary, we propose that glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine abnormalities may be the probable basis for OCSS.
  5,177 511 3
ARTICLE
Limits to psychiatry and limitations of psychiatrists
K Chandra Sekhar
January-June 2008, 30(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.43128  
  5,342 262 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Mind, brain and psychotherapy
Hitesh C Sheth
January-June 2009, 31(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53309  PMID:21938085
There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be). However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.
  5,102 490 -
EDITORIAL
Depression: The disorder and the burden
MS Reddy
January-June 2010, 32(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.70510  PMID:21799550
  5,098 408 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comprehensibility of translated informed consent documents used in clinical research in psychiatry
Venu Gopal Jhanwar, Ram Jeevan Bishnoi
January-June 2010, 32(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.70517  PMID:21799552
Background: Informed consent forms are required in all clinical trials which are approved by an independent Ethics Committee before practical use in the trials. However, how much the average subject actually understands of the information contained in these informed consent forms is uncertain. Aim: In a cross sectional study, the translated informed consent forms used in psychiatric clinical trials were assessed with respect to their ease of readability. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 30 informed consent forms translated from English to Hindi used in multinational and multicentre psychiatric clinical trials sponsored by different sponsors. We examined consent forms for readability scores and factors that might relate to readability. Results: The mean readability score for the informed consent forms, determined by the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index (FKGL) was grade levels of 13.66. The ease of readability assessed by the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) was 46.08 suggesting significant complexity of the texts. These values carry even more significance when the average years of schooling for India as a whole are 6.2 years. Conclusion: Our results show that the most informed consent forms were too complex to understand by an average adult subject. We suggest reducing this complexity and increasing the ease of readability so those average subjects receive the intended information as exactly as it could be. This can be achieved by few simple measures like improving the deficiencies in translation processes, encouraging the investigators to participate while preparing these forms, and enhanced understanding of the site specific requirements, namely culture, language (dialect), general literacy rate, etc.
  4,986 119 -
CASE REPORTS
Cognitive behavior therapy for Stuttering: A case series
RP Reddy, MP Sharma, N Shivashankar
January-June 2010, 32(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.70533  PMID:21799560
The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering) and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage), substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, mid- and post-assessment were carried out using Stuttering Severity Scale (SSI), Perception of Stuttering Inventory (PSI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Dysfunctional Attitude (DAS), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Assertiveness Scale (AS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and World Health Organization - Quality of Life Scale (WHO-QOL). Five clients received cognitive behavioral intervention comprising of psycho-education, relaxation, deep breathing, humming, prolongation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving strategies and assertiveness. At post-treatment assessment, there was improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.
  4,854 163 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study on coping patterns of junior college students
N Ramya, R Parthasarathy
January-June 2009, 31(1):45-47
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53315  PMID:21938091
The objective of this study was to examine the coping patterns followed by the junior college students. Further, an extensive effort was done to study the gender differences in coping patterns used by the students. This study was conducted in Christ College, Bangalore and on the first and second-year students of pre-university studying in either of the branches (Bachelor of Arts, Science, or Commerce). A total of 120 samples were collected from study population of junior college students using the random sampling method. The sample comprised, 40 students from each group of Arts, Science, and Commerce, including both of the sexes. The tools such as, socio-demographic data sheet and coping checklist, were used. The study findings revealed that majority of the students adopted emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies. Most of the female students adopted emotion-focused coping strategies, whereas the male students mostly used problem-focused coping strategies.
  4,490 427 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Reviewing Two Types of Addiction - Pathological Gambling and Substance Use
Seyed Amir Jazaeri, Mohammad Hussain Bin Habil
January-March 2012, 34(1):5-11
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.96147  
Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches.
  4,539 81 5
CASE REPORTS
Entomophagy and coprophagy in undifferentiated schizophrenia
Anand Lingeswaran, Vinayak Vijayakumar, John Dinesh
January-June 2009, 31(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53318  PMID:21938094
Coprophagia or the ingestion of feces, considered to be a variant of pica, has been associated with medical disorders like seizure disorders, cerebral atrophy, and tumors and with psychiatric disorders like mental retardation, alcoholism, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, fetishes, delirium, and dementia. But entomophagy or the practice of eating live or dead insects as food by humans has only been reported as part of eating habits by some cultures in the world and not in association with any medical or neuropsychiatric disorders. Till date, there is no report in medical literature of entomophagy as an association with any neuropsychiatric or medical illnesses. Coprophagy and entomophagy has not been together reported as well. We describe the first ever case report of a 19-year- old male patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia and associated with both entomophagy and coprophagy. His schizophrenic symptoms, the entomophagic, coprophagic behaviors improved with olanzapine therapy. Entomophagy and coprophagy, two very unusual human behaviors, can be seen in association with schizophrenia.
  4,267 243 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tramadol use in premature ejaculation: Daily versus sporadic treatment
Amil H Khan, Deepa Rasaily
July-September 2013, 35(3):256-259
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.119477  PMID:24249927
Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME) is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus) versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically) for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results : Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment.
  4,393 71 -
A comparative study of stress among students of medicine, engineering, and nursing
Shashank P Behere, Richa Yadav, Prakash B Behere
July-December 2011, 33(2):145-148
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.92064  PMID:22345838
Background: In today's ultra competitive environment, students face more stress than ever - be it related to studies, examination, peer, teachers or parent's pressure. Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. On one hand, stress compels us to action. However, it can result in feelings of rejection, anger, and depression, leading to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 100 randomly selected students each from Medical College Engineering College and 50 Nursing College was done. For reliability, anonymity and confidentiality were maintained. Stress was measured by using stress measurement scale having 24 Yes/No questions. The questionnaire was in English and Hindi so that language would not be problem. Results: Stress as an entity is universally present among students of all three streams, irrespective of age, sex, and other variables. Students in all three streams have shown denial to existence of problems, with maximum among nursing students. Medical and Engineering students had stress level of such a degree that requires clinical attention, while none of the nursing students belonged to this category. Conclusions: There is attitude among students of turning a blind eye toward existing stress which is a serious problem and may be harbinger of serious mental and psychosocial problems.
  4,191 230 2
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