Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2009| January-June  | Volume 31 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 8, 2009

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Immunological role of hardiness on depression
Vinita Sinha, RN Singh
January-June 2009, 31(1):39-44
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53314  PMID:21938090
The present study holds hardiness as the independent variable and depression as the dependent variable. The immunological role of hardiness was ascertained on depression. Sample constituted of 320 people aging 21 to 65. Subjects were administered hardiness scale and depression scale. Based on the scores obtained on hardiness scale, subjects were categorized specifically into three hardy groups: high, moderate, and low to see their differential effects on depressive feelings. The differences between the means of three hardy groups were found to be significant and the immunological role of hardiness on depression is thoroughly highlighted.
  4 3,793 269
REVIEW ARTICLES
Neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurodevelopmental basis of obsessive-Compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia
Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Naren P Rao, Rishikesh V Behere
January-June 2009, 31(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53308  PMID:21938084
The prevalence of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia (OCSS) appears to be higher than that expected on the basis of comorbidity rates. Review of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals involvement of similar regions namely the frontal lobe, the basal ganglia, the thalamus, and the cerebellum, in both the disorders. Neurodevelopmental etiopathogenesis has been proposed to explain schizophrenia as well as OCD. Significant overlap in neurotransmitter dysfunction (serotonin, glutamate, and dopamine) has been documented between schizophrenia and OCD. The New-onset obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms have been reported with the use of atypical antipsychotics in the schizophrenia patients In this background, OCSS is an emerging area of recent interests. This article attempts to review the literature on the neurobiology of OCSS. Neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neuromotor abnormalities in OCSS discussed in the context of neurodevelopmental etiopathogenesis suggest glutamate abnormalities in OCSS. Atypical antipsychotic induced OCSS points towards the possible roles of glutamate and serotonin. Dopamine may be responsible for the beneficial role of antipsychotics in the treatment of OCD. In summary, we propose that glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine abnormalities may be the probable basis for OCSS.
  3 6,282 529
Contemporary perspectives on spirituality and mental health
Pulkit Sharma, Ruby Charak, Vibha Sharma
January-June 2009, 31(1):16-23
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53310  PMID:21938086
The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly.
  2 7,328 653
CASE REPORTS
Entomophagy and coprophagy in undifferentiated schizophrenia
Anand Lingeswaran, Vinayak Vijayakumar, John Dinesh
January-June 2009, 31(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53318  PMID:21938094
Coprophagia or the ingestion of feces, considered to be a variant of pica, has been associated with medical disorders like seizure disorders, cerebral atrophy, and tumors and with psychiatric disorders like mental retardation, alcoholism, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, fetishes, delirium, and dementia. But entomophagy or the practice of eating live or dead insects as food by humans has only been reported as part of eating habits by some cultures in the world and not in association with any medical or neuropsychiatric disorders. Till date, there is no report in medical literature of entomophagy as an association with any neuropsychiatric or medical illnesses. Coprophagy and entomophagy has not been together reported as well. We describe the first ever case report of a 19-year- old male patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia and associated with both entomophagy and coprophagy. His schizophrenic symptoms, the entomophagic, coprophagic behaviors improved with olanzapine therapy. Entomophagy and coprophagy, two very unusual human behaviors, can be seen in association with schizophrenia.
  1 5,094 251
EDITORIAL
Primary prevention in psychiatry
MS Reddy
January-June 2009, 31(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53307  PMID:21938083
  1 3,513 350
CASE REPORTS
Depression in acromegaly treated with escitalopram and cognitive therapy
Avinash De Sousa
January-June 2009, 31(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53317  PMID:21938093
Depression is one of the commonest disorders encountered in general hospital psychiatry. Acromegaly is a condition with excessive growth hormone secretion that may at times present with oversychopathology. We present the case of a 33-year-old lady with depression and acromegaly that successfully resolved after treatment with escitalopram and cognitive therapy.
  - 3,237 180
NEW HORIZON
Need for a realistic mental health programme in India
Ankur Barua
January-June 2009, 31(1):48-49
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53316  PMID:21938092
India, with a population of a billion, has very limited numbers of mental health facilities and professionals in providing mental health care to all the people. The disability associated with mental or brain disorders stops people from working and engaging in other creative activities. Gradual implementation of district mental health programme in a phased manner with support of adequate managerial and financial inputs is the need of the day. Trained mental health care personnel, treatment, care, and rehabilitation facilities should be made available and accessible to the masses. The voluntary organizations should be encouraged to participate in mental health care programme.
  - 5,932 627
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of fluoxetine on some cognitive functions of patients of depression
Jaykaran , Pankaj Bhardwaj, ND Kantharia, Preeti Yadav, Arvind Panwar
January-June 2009, 31(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53311  PMID:21938087
Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of long-term administration of a commonly prescribed antidepressant, fluoxetine from different group on memory and psychomotor functions in patients of various psychiatric disorders using a battery of simple tests that can be conveniently applied to the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Memory was evaluated using the PGI memory scale and psychomotor functions were evaluated using six letter cancellation test. Statistical analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study reveal that there was significant improvement in some cognitive function. Cognitive functions are improved at first follow-up and they improved continuously up to last follow-up that is at one month. It is observed that there was improvement in the primary disease. So, final score of the cognitive parameters is because of the resultant activity of direct drug action and improvement in the underlying disease.
  - 6,489 420
Role of family and peers in initiation and continuation of substance use
Dechenla Tsering, Ranabir Pal
January-June 2009, 31(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53312  PMID:21938088
Aims: To assess the impact of family and peers on both initiation and continuation of substance use among eighth, ninth and tenth grade adolescent high school students. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Setting: Two high schools of West Bengal, India. Participants: 416 students in class VIII, IX, and X in two schools. Interventions: None. Measurements: Substance use: initiation, sources, reasons for continuation. Then proportions and chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross sectional study conducted among 416 students from class VII, IX and X in two high schools( urban and rural) of West Bengal, India selected by Multistage random sampling. A self administered anonymous pretested close ended questionnaire was used with the main outcome measures of initiation, sources, reasons for continuation of substance use based on WHO study team questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of substance use was found to be higher among the urban students (15.1%) than their rural counterparts (10.7%). The proportion of users was higher in the higher grades as compared to the lower grades. Among urban as well as rural students, 16 years and above were significantly more likely than their counterparts aged 15 years and below to report lifetime use. The mean age of initiation ranged from 12.6 to 13.9 years. Family members and friends were found to have a considerable influence not only on initiation but also important sources for money as well as the substance. Easy availability in the neighborhood was also an important correlate to continuation of substances. Conclusions: Family environment as well as peer groups has an important bearing on initiation and continuation of substance use. Experimentation of substance use motivated by peer groups is common among adolescents and starts early in life. Hence, it is necessary to provide health promotion programs directed toward students and their families which encourage attitude shaping among school children towards self-confidence and adequacy.
  - 2,917 342
The psychological world of adolescence: A comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls
Manju Dhoundiyal, Renuka Venkatesh
January-June 2009, 31(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53313  PMID:21938089
A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12-18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline category as per SDQ and one-third as per PedsQL. Further, there was a definite linear relationship between the total problem score of both scales. This was irrespective of the locale and school-going activity. The results indicate the need for building psychological infrastructure into the social system to help adolescents girls grow to their potential.
  - 3,768 385
A study on coping patterns of junior college students
N Ramya, R Parthasarathy
January-June 2009, 31(1):45-47
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53315  PMID:21938091
The objective of this study was to examine the coping patterns followed by the junior college students. Further, an extensive effort was done to study the gender differences in coping patterns used by the students. This study was conducted in Christ College, Bangalore and on the first and second-year students of pre-university studying in either of the branches (Bachelor of Arts, Science, or Commerce). A total of 120 samples were collected from study population of junior college students using the random sampling method. The sample comprised, 40 students from each group of Arts, Science, and Commerce, including both of the sexes. The tools such as, socio-demographic data sheet and coping checklist, were used. The study findings revealed that majority of the students adopted emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies. Most of the female students adopted emotion-focused coping strategies, whereas the male students mostly used problem-focused coping strategies.
  - 5,669 467
REVIEW ARTICLES
Mind, brain and psychotherapy
Hitesh C Sheth
January-June 2009, 31(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.53309  PMID:21938085
There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be). However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.
  - 5,926 507
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