Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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   2018| September-October  | Volume 40 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 10, 2018

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Specific learning disabilities: Issues that remain unanswered
Adarsh Kohli, Samita Sharma, Susanta K Padhy
September-October 2018, 40(5):399-405
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_86_18  PMID:30275613
  4,836 341 -
Usage of online social networking sites among school students of Siliguri, West Bengal, India
Medha Raj, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Abhijit Mukherjee
September-October 2018, 40(5):452-457
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_70_18  PMID:30275621
Background and Objective: Social networking sites (SNSs) are online platforms that provide individuals with an opportunity to manage their personal relationship and remain updated with the world. The primary objective of the present research was to find the pattern of school students' SNS usage and its influence on their academic performance. Materials and Methods: The setting was an English medium school situated in the metropolitan city of Siliguri in West Bengal. A pretested and predesigned questionnaire was self-administered anonymously by 388 randomly selected students. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistics. Results: Three hundred thirty-eight (87.1%) students used SNS and spent an increased amount of time on these networks. Addiction was seen in 70.7% and was more common in the age group of 17 years and above. Conclusion: There is a need to educate students about the ways of using SNS and the perils associated with it, to help them understand that though very much in trend, they should be used cautiously.
  2,316 119 -
Internet use patterns, internet addiction, and psychological distress among engineering university students: A study from India
Nitin Anand, Praveen A Jain, Santosh Prabhu, Christofer Thomas, Aneesh Bhat, PV Prathyusha, Shrinivasa U Bhat, Kimberly Young, Anish V Cherian
September-October 2018, 40(5):458-467
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_135_18  PMID:30275622
Background: Internet addiction (IA) among university engineering students and its association with psychological distress can impact their educational progress, academic competence, and long-term career goals. Thus, there is a need to investigate the IA among engineering students. Objectives: This study was a first such attempt to explore internet use behaviors, IA, among a large group of engineering students from India, and its association with psychological distress primarily depressive symptoms. Methods: One thousand eighty six engineering students aged 18–21 years pursuing bachelors in engineering from the south Indian city of Mangalore participated in the study. The socio-educational and internet use behaviors data sheet was used to gather demographic information and patterns of internet use, Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was utilized to assess IA, and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) assessed psychological distress primarily depressive symptoms. Results: Among the total N = 1086, 27.1% of engineering students met criterion for mild addictive internet use, 9.7% for moderate addictive internet use, and 0.4% for severe addiction to internet. IA was higher among engineering students who were male, staying in rented accommodations, accessed internet several times a day, spent more than 3 h per day on internet, and had psychological distress. Gender, duration of use, time spent per day, frequency of internet use, and psychological distress (depressive symptoms) predicted IA. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of engineering students have IA which can be detrimental for their educational progress in university studies and long-term career goals. Early identification and management of IA and psychological distress among engineering students is crucial.
  2,235 198 -
Children's reactions to flood disaster in Kashmir
Fahim Ul Hassan, Gaurav Singh, Kasi Sekar
September-October 2018, 40(5):414-419
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_571_17  PMID:30275615
Background: The flood disaster of 9th–10th September 2014 wreaked havoc in the Jammu and Kashmir region of India. Incessant rains and deluge claimed 283 lives and damaged 2.53 lakh houses. This article presents the findings of the psychosocial care team from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, India, during the early phase of disaster. Materials and Methods: The team assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms of 64 child survivors from six villages of two districts struck by floods using Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES)-8 and qualitative narrations. Results: Children showed high levels of intrusion and avoidance in the aftermath of floods. Both boys and girls showed moderate to severe level of psychological impact on the domains of CRIES-8. The narrations by the children centred on the theme of “water” and “enjoyment in seeing lots of water;” followed by “fearing of the parent's life,” later on “fear of their own life,” and subsequently to avoidance to go near the river and nightmares like “floating in the water.” Conclusion: Disasters immensely impact children because of their particular stage of psychological and social development. This highlights the need for psychosocial interventions to minimize the impact of disasters on children at the earliest using simple psychosocial care techniques by employing available community-based manpower.
  1,737 113 -
Addiction-like behavior associated with mobile phone usage among medical students in Delhi
Saurav Basu, Suneela Garg, M Meghachandra Singh, Charu Kohli
September-October 2018, 40(5):446-451
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_59_18  PMID:30275620
Background: Mobile phone addiction is a type of technological addiction or nonsubstance addiction. The present study was conducted with the objectives of developing and validating a mobile phone addiction scale in medical students and to assess the burden and factors associated with mobile phone addiction-like behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students aged ≥18 years studying in a medical college in New Delhi, India from December 2016 to May 2017. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Mobile phone addiction was assessed using a self-designed 20-item Mobile Phone Addiction Scale (MPAS). Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 17. Results: The study comprised of 233 (60.1%) male and 155 (39.9%) female medical students with a mean age of 20.48 years. MPAS had a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.90). Bartlett's test of sphericity was statistically significant (P < 0.0001), indicating that the MPAS data were likely factorizable. A principal component analysis found strong loadings on items relating to four components: harmful use, intense desire, impaired control, and tolerance. A subsequent two-stage cluster analysis of all the 20-items of the MPAS classified 155 (39.9%) students with mobile phone addiction-like behavior that was lower in adolescent compared to older students, but there was no significant difference across gender. Conclusion: Mobile phone use with increasing adoption of smartphones promotes an addiction-like behavior that is evolving as a public health problem in a large proportion of Indian youth.
  1,703 144 -
Perception of families of children with specific learning disorder: An exploratory study
Anamika Sahu, Rachna Bhargava, Rajesh Sagar, Manju Mehta
September-October 2018, 40(5):406-413
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_148_18  PMID:30275614
Background: Parents have a tremendous influence on their children's academic and social success. Unfortunately, a majority of them do not have a concrete idea on how to assist their children, impacting negatively on both the parents and the child. Currently, there is sparse research on parents' experiences in dealing with children with specific learning disorders (SLD). The current study was planned to explore the perception of families of children with SLD. Materials and Methods: Five focus group discussions (FGDs) including 30 parents of children with SLD aged between 8 and 14 years were carried out. Each group composed of five − seven participants. A format to guide FGDs was made to bring uniformity across groups. The transcripts were analyzed using the content analysis method to extract key conceptual themes. Results: The parents showed lack of conceptual knowledge with regard to the SLD symptomatology as well as proper guidelines to deal with their child's problem. They displayed negative attitudes and reactions toward their child's diagnosis of SLD, such as rejection, denial, over-protection, and loss of hope. Their caregiving was also perceived to place physical, personal, social, financial, and emotional burden by the majority of parents. Conclusion: The study highlights the experiences of parents dealing with SLD in terms of their inadequate knowledge, adaptational difficulties, and burden. The findings also reiterate the need to focus on family perspective and experiences when working with a learning-disabled child. Various supportive strategies are required to empower families, which would help alleviate their burden. Moreover, parents' training to strengthen child's learning skills is also warranted.
  1,371 112 -
Lives without roots: Institutionalized homeless women with chronic mental illness
Febna Moorkath, Mysore Narasimha Vranda, Channaveerachari Naveenkumar
September-October 2018, 40(5):476-481
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_103_18  PMID:30275624
The spiral phenomenon of homelessness and mental ill-health are major growing epidemic in both developed and developing countries. Viewing from a socio-economic-political dimension, homelessness and mental ill-health cause detrimental effects on the individuals' lives as well as the nation-building process. The condition of women seems to be complex, as the gender perspectives are often described in terms of patriarchy and powerlessness. The bi-directionality of mental illness and homelessness creates a vicious cycle, and many women seem to end up in shelter care homes. The scenario of homeless women with chronic mental illness reflects the lack of community-based rehabilitation efforts and gender-sensitive policy level initiatives.
  1,113 95 -
What adolescent girls know about mental health: Findings from a mental health literacy survey from an Urban slum setting in India
Gayatri Saraf, Prabha S Chandra, Geetha Desai, Girish N Rao
September-October 2018, 40(5):433-439
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_108_18  PMID:30275618
Background: Youth in vulnerable situations are known to have high rates of mental disorders but low help-seeking. Help-seeking is known to be influenced by mental health literacy (MHL), a key concept that is important for the recognition of mental disorders and planning intervention. Aims: To explore MHL and help-seeking patterns in a group of young women in an urban slum setting in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 337 young women between 16 and 19 years of age belonging to urban slum settings formed the study sample. Two vignettes on depression and self-harm were used to assess: (a) recognition of the disorder, (b) help-seeking, and (c) knowledge of treatments available. Results: Only 8% of women were able to label the condition as depression in the first vignette. Though suicidality was identified correctly by the majority of participants 73 (63%), they did not think it needed urgent intervention. Only a few considered mental health professionals as possible sources of help (19.3% for depression and 2.4% for self-harm). Majority of the young women felt friends and parents were sources of help, and that stigma and lack of awareness were the reasons for not considering professional help. Conclusion: MHL regarding depression and suicidality is low among young women from low-income areas. It is a critical and urgent need to encourage early and appropriate help-seeking for mental health problems in this vulnerable population.
  1,083 88 -
Internal, external, and ecological validity in research design, conduct, and evaluation
Chittaranjan Andrade
September-October 2018, 40(5):498-499
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_334_18  PMID:30275631
Reliability and validity describe desirable psychometric characteristics of research instruments. The concept of validity is also applied to research studies and their findings. Internal validity examines whether the study design, conduct, and analysis answer the research questions without bias. External validity examines whether the study findings can be generalized to other contexts. Ecological validity examines, specifically, whether the study findings can be generalized to real-life settings; thus ecological validity is a subtype of external validity. These concepts are explained using examples so that readers may understand why the consideration of internal, external, and ecological validity is important for designing and conducting studies, and for understanding the merits of published research.
  1,127 38 -
Adaptation of subtests of kaufman assessment battery for children, second edition for Gujarati pre-school children
Dipen V Patel, Rejani T Gopalan, Somashekhar M Nimbalkar
September-October 2018, 40(5):420-425
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_104_18  PMID:30275616
Context: Cognition testing is frequently used in children to assess their intelligence for various needs. Abundant tests to assess cognition are available in the western world. The paucity of such tests for use in Gujarati population necessitates their adaptation for Gujarati culture. Aims: To adapt three subtests (Number Recall, Word Order, and Triangles) of Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition for Gujarati-speaking preschool age children using priori (judgemental) procedures of test adaptation process. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study of test adaptation process carried out in three kindergarten schools of Gujarat. Subjects and Methods: Three subtests were translated and adapted into Gujarati. A pilot study evaluating the applicability and appropriateness of the adapted version of the three tests was done, and the results of these raw scores were compared with English tests' scores. Of 68 children (age 3–6 years) who completed the pilot study, 15 boys and 15 girls 4–6 years of age were randomly selected to perform English tests for agreement between English and the adapted versions. Statistical Analysis Used: Agreement between the adapted and English versions of the tests was measured. Results: During adaptation, modifications were required only in the items of the Word order subtest. All children were able to understand and perform the test. Triangles did not require adaptation or modifications in test items. The agreement between raw scores of the two versions was good for both “Number Recall” (mean difference = 0.8, 95% confidence limits: −2.6, 4.1) and “Word Order” (mean difference = 0.6, 95% confidence limits: −3.2, 4.4). Conclusion: Adaptation of three subtests of KABC-II using a priori, that is, judgemental, procedure was suitable for Gujarati-speaking preschool children.
  1,026 46 -
Prevalence and pattern of phantom ringing and phantom vibration among medical interns and their relationship with smartphone use and perceived stress
Ajish G Mangot, Vasantmeghna S Murthy, Sharad V Kshirsagar, Ajay H Deshmukh, Dinesh V Tembe
September-October 2018, 40(5):440-445
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_141_18  PMID:30275619
Background: Phantom sensations like phantom vibration (PV) and phantom ringing (PR)— the sensations of vibration and ringing of the phone when they are not, respectively—are among the latest in the category of “techno-pathology” to receive global attention. This study was conducted with the aim to estimate the prevalence of such sensations among medical interns and their association with perceived stress levels and smartphone usage pattern. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three medical interns using smartphone were recruited for the study. Data were collected anonymously using semi-structured questionnaire, perceived stress scale (PSS), and smartphone addiction scale-short version (SAS-SV). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Fifty-nine percent students had a high level of stress, whereas 40% had problematic smartphone use. Sixty percent students experienced PV, whereas 42% experienced PR and both were significantly associated with higher frequency of phone use and the use of vibration mode. Mean SAS-SV score was significantly lower in students who did not perceive PR/PV, whereas mean PSS score was significantly lower in students who did not perceive PV. Conclusion: This study confirms findings from other national and international researches about the experience of cell phone phantom sensations and their relationship with the pattern of phone use and stress level. It also brings to light high levels of stress and problematic smartphone use among medical students during the internship.
  850 74 -
A study of magnitude and psychological correlates of smartphone use in medical students: A pilot study with a novel telemetric approach
Saras Prasad, Devavrat Harshe, Navneet Kaur, Sudha Jangannavar, Aishwarya Srivastava, Unnati Achanta, Samra Khan, Gurudas Harshe
September-October 2018, 40(5):468-475
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_133_18  PMID:30275623
Context: Smartphone use is being investigated as a potential behavioral addiction. Most of the studies opt for a subjective questionnaire-based method. This study evaluates the psychological correlates of excessive smartphone use. It uses a telemetric approach to quantitatively and objectively measure participants' smartphone use. Methodology: One hundred forty consenting undergraduate and postgraduate students using an Android smartphone at a tertiary care teaching hospital were recruited by serial sampling. They were pre-tested with the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, Big five inventory, Levenson's Locus of Control Scale, Ego Resiliency Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Materialism Values Scale. Participants' smartphones were installed with tracker apps, which kept track of total smartphone usage and time spent on individual apps, number of lock–unlock cycles, and total screen time. Data from tracker apps were recorded after 7 days. Results: About 36 % of participants fulfilled smartphone addiction criteria. Smartphone Addiction Scale score significantly predicted time spent on a smartphone in the 7-day period (β = 0.234, t = 2.086, P = 0.039). Predictors for time spent on social networking sites were ego resiliency (β = 0.256, t = 2.278, P = 0.008), conscientiousness (β = −0.220, t = −2.307, P = 0.023), neuroticism (β = −0.196, t = −2.037, P = 0.044), and openness (β = −0.225, t = −2.349, P = 0.020). Time spent gaming was predicted by success domain of materialism (β =0.265, t = 2.723, P = 0.007) and shopping by ego resiliency and happiness domain of materialism. Conclusions: Telemetric approach is a sound, objective method for evaluating smartphone use. Psychological factors predict overall smartphone usage as well as usage of individual apps. Smartphone Addiction Scale scores correlate with and predict overall smartphone usage.
  848 51 -
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of tourette syndrome: a naturalistic study with 3 months of follow-up
Swarndeep Singh, Saurabh Kumar, Nand Kumar, Rohit Verma
September-October 2018, 40(5):482-486
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_332_17  PMID:30275625
The objective of this study is to report the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in three patients with medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS) and over 3-month follow-up. A review of literature on the use of rTMS for the treatment of TS is also presented. Three patients with severe, medication-refractory TS and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in two of them, received an open-label trial of rTMS at 1 Hz frequency for 4-week duration. The first two cases of TS-OCD showed, on average, around 57% improvement in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores (65% and 50%) and 45% improvement in Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores; however, the third case of pure-TS showed marginal improvement of 10% only. The improvement in TS-OCD patients with rTMS treatment was maintained at the end of 3-month follow-up, with an average reduction of about 49% (58% and 40%) and 36% observed in YGTSS and Y-BOCS scores, respectively. The present study supports the use of low-frequency rTMS to improve tics and OCD symptoms in patients with severe, medication-refractory TS-OCD. Further, the beneficial effects of rTMS treatment were maintained substantially over 3-month follow-up period.
  823 42 -
Leisure time physical activity and risk of developing depression among the youth of Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh, India
Mitasha Singh, Piyush Sharma, Des Raj, Shailja Sharma, Ankush Kaushal, Sunil Kumar Raina
September-October 2018, 40(5):426-432
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_85_18  PMID:30275617
Background: Physical inactivity during adolescence and youth has been considered as potential risk factor for future mental health problems. The present study was conducted with the aim to examine whether an association exists between leisure-time physical activity (PA) and depression among the youth of Kangra district, studying in professional or degree colleges. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the students of Medical College (MC), Central University (CU) and Industrial Training Institute (ITI) of Kangra district. 370 adolescents and youth of age <25 years, who consented to participate, were recruited. The sample size was divided into three parts among all the three institutes. Only one question regarding leisure time PA (LTPA) was asked, as to how many hours spent in the last week; and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) was used. Results: There were 124 participants from ITI, 126 from CU and 120 from MC. The mean score of CES-DC was highest among CU students 22.7 (±11.0) and lowest among MC students; 13.6 (±9.2). Low LTPA (<4 h) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms among all students (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]; 3.34 [1.41–7.92]). Conclusion: LTPA was associated with lower rates of depression.
  757 54 -
Clinical utility of add-on transcranial direct current stimulation for binge eating disorder with obesity in schizophrenia
Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Manjunath Masali, Venkataram Shivakumar, Anushree Bose, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
September-October 2018, 40(5):487-490
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_551_17  PMID:30275626
Over the recent years, there has been an increasing application of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to modify eating behaviors in healthy population and persons with eating disorders. tDCS is a noninvasive, neuromodulatory intervention which is well-tolerated and safe. In this case report, we describe the successful application of add-on tDCS in a patient with schizophrenia to reduce the craving for food that in turn, helped in reversing the weight gain.
  717 29 -
The lie effect: A factor responsible for perceived therapeutic response
Sujita Kumar Kar
September-October 2018, 40(5):491-492
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_99_18  PMID:30275627
  570 35 -
Marchiafava–bignami disease presenting as acute psychosis
Azmi Naaz, Abid Rizvi, Mohammad Amir Usmani
September-October 2018, 40(5):494-496
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_56_18  PMID:30275629
  509 50 -
Neuropsychiatric symptoms as early manifestation of progressive supranuclear palsy
Navratan Suthar, Naresh Nebhinani, Karandeep Paul
September-October 2018, 40(5):492-494
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_46_18  PMID:30275628
  527 28 -
Lacosamide precipitated neutropenia in a patient with bipolar disorder and comorbid epilepsy
Naren P Rao, Sweta Sheth, Shivarama Varambally
September-October 2018, 40(5):496-497
DOI:10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_16_18  PMID:30275630
  492 31 -
Rethinking narcissism: The bad – and surprising good – about feeling special
Pragya Sharma
September-October 2018, 40(5):500-501
  382 41 -